Philippine lighted essay

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Philippine Books Literature and history will be closely interrelated. In finding the history of your race, the good feelings, aspirations, persuits and traditions of a folks are sure to always be included… and these thoughts, aspirations, persuits and traditions that are created is books. History can be written and this too, is literature. Events that can be drafted down happen to be part of the case literature. Literary works, therefore , is part of record. Literature and history, however , also have dissimilarities.

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Literature could possibly be figments in the imagination or perhaps events devoid of truth that have been written straight down, while record is made up of occasions that really happened. The Pre-Spanish Period Long before the Spaniard and other and also the landed in Philippine shores, our forefathers already acquired their own literary works stamped inside the history of our race. Each of our ancient books shows our customs and traditions in everyday life because trace in our folk testimonies, old takes on and short stories. Our ancestors as well had their own alphabet that has been different from that brought by the Spaniards.

The first buchstabenfolge used by each of our ancestors was similar to that of the Malayo-Polynesian alphabet. Whatsoever record our ancestors remaining were both burned by Spanish friars in the perception that they had been works from the devil or were created on elements that conveniently perished, such as the barks of trees, dried out leaves and bamboo cylinders which could not have remained undestroyed even if efforts were made aid them. Different records that remained demonstrated folk tunes that proved existence of any native tradition truly our own.

Some of these had been passed on by simply word of mouth till they come to the hands of a lot of publishers or perhaps printers who have took affinity for printing the manuscripts in the ancient Filipinos. The Spaniards who reached the Israel tried to prove that our forefathers were seriously fond of poetry, songs, testimonies, riddles and proverbs which usually we continue to enjoy today and which will serve to show to generations the true traditions of our people. Pre-Spanish Literature is seen as a A. STORIES. Legends can be a form of prose the common concept of the which is regarding the origin of the thing, place, location or name.

The events are imaginary, devoid of real truth and incredible. Old Filipino customs are reflected in these legends. Their aim is usually to entertain. The following is an example of a legend is definitely the LEGEND WITH THE TAGALOGS. B. FOLK STORIES. Folk reports are made up of stories about life, adventure, take pleasure in, horror and humor where one can derive lessons about life. These are helpful to us mainly because they support us love our environment, assess our personas and improve our points of views in life. One of this is THE CELESTIAL BODY OVERHEAD AND THE SUNLIGHT. C. THE EPIC ERA.

Epics are long story poems where a series of heroic achievements or events, generally of a main character, are managed at duration. Nobody can identify which epics are the earliest because in their translations from all other languages, also in English and Spanish. We can only determine their origins through the time stated in the said epics. Apart from the aforementioned epics, there are still other epics which can be read and studied like the following epics. a. Bidasari-Moro epic n. Biag national insurance Lam-ang-Ilokano epic c. Maragtas-Visayan epic d. Haraya-Visayan impressive e. Lagda-Visayan epic farrenheit.

Hari social fear Bukid-Visayan impressive g. Kumintang-Tagalog epic l. Parang Sabir-Moro epic i. “Dagoy for “Sudsod-Tagbanua epic j. Tatuaang-Bagobo epic e. Indarapatra for Sulayman t. Bantugan m. Daramoke-A-Babay ” Moro impressive in “Darangan D. PERSONS SONGS. Folk songs are one of the most well-known forms of Filipino literature that emerged in the pre-Spanish period. These tracks mirrored early forms of traditions. Many of these include 12 syllables. Here are the examples: a. Kundiman b. Kumintang to Tagumpay c. Ang Dalit o Imno d. Ang Oyayi um Hele elizabeth. Diana farrenheit. Soliraning g. Talindaw OTHER FORMS OF PRE-SPANISH POETRY At the.

Epigrams, Riddles, Chants, Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings 1 ) Epigrams (Salawikain). These have already been customarily applied and dished up as laws or rules on very good behavior simply by our forefathers. To others, they are like allegories or parables that convey . lessons intended for the youthful. 2 . Riddles (Bugtong) or Palaisipan. They are made up of a number of measured lines with rhyme and may include four to 12 syllables. 3. Office (Bulong). Utilized in witchcraft or perhaps enchantment. four. Maxims. Some are rhyming couplets with passages of a few, 6 or 8 syllables, each line having the same number of syllables. 5. Sayings (Kasabihan).

Often used in bullying or to touch upon a person’s actuations. 6. Sawikain (Sayings with no hidden meanings) The The spanish language Period (1565-1898) It is an recognized belief that the Spanish colonization of the Korea started in 1565 during the time of Miguel Lopez sobre Legazpi, the first The spanish language governor-general in the Philippines. Literary works started to blossom during his time. This spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Mutiny in 1872. The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three generations. During these moments, many changes occurred in the lives of Filipinos.

They embraced the Catholic religious beliefs, changed all their names, and were baptized. Their lifestyles changed too. They developed houses crazy of pebbles and bricks, used beautiful furniture just like the piano and used home utensils. Carriages, trains and boats were used as means of travel around. They kept fiestas to honor the saints, the pope and the governors. That they had cockfights, equine races and the theater while means of excitement. This gave rise for the formation with the different classes of society like the wealthy and the property owners. Some Filipinos finished training like treatments, law, agriculture and teaching.

Many Filipinos finished their particular schooling previously had been proven. A. SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE BOOKS Due to the lengthy period of colonization of the Korea by the Spaniards, they have applied a strong impact on our literature. 1 . The initially Filipino buchstabenfolge called ALIBATA was replaced by the Roman alphabet. 2 . The educating of the Christian Doctrine became the basis of spiritual practices. a few. The Spanish language which usually became the literary language during this time given many of the words to the language. four.

European legends and practices brought here became assimilated in our music, corridos, and moro-moros. 5. Ancient literature was accumulated and translated to Tagalog and other dialects. 6. Various grammar ebooks were imprinted in Filipino, like Tagalog, Ilocano and Visayan several. Our periodicals during these times gained a religious tone. N. THE 1ST BOOKS 1 ) ANG DOCTRINA CRISTIANA (THE CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE). This was the first book printed in the Philippines in 1593 in xylography. It was written by Fr. Juan para Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, in Tagalog and Spanish.

It contained the Pater Noster (Out Father), Ave Nancy (Hail Mary), Regina Coeli (Hail Ay Queen), the Ten Tips of God, the Tips of the Catholic Church, the Seven Mortal Sins, Tips on how to Confess, and the Cathecism. Three old initial copies of the book can easily still be found at the Vatican, at the Madrid Musem and at america Congress. It contains only 87 pages although costs $5, 000. zero. 2 . La Senora delete Rosario. The other book branded in the Israel was written by Fr. Blancas de San Jose in 1602, and printed with the UST Printing Press with the help of Juan sobre Vera, a Chinese mestizo.

It contains the biographies of saints, novenas, and queries and answers on religion. 3. Libro de los 4 Postprimeras de Hombre (in Spanish and Tagalog). This can be a first publication printed in typography. some. Ang Barlaan at Josephat. This is a Biblical tale printed inside the Philippines and translated to Tagalog from Greek by simply Fr. Antonio de Borja. It is considered to be the 1st Tagalog novel published in the Philippines whether or not it is only a translation. The printed translation has only 556 internet pages. The Ilocano translation in poetry was done by Fr. Agustin Mejia. 5. The Pasion.

This is actually the book about the life and sufferings of Jesus Christ. It truly is read just during Loaned. There were four versions of the in Tagalog and each edition is based on the name with the writer. These are the Pilapil version (by Mariano Pilapil of Bulacan, 1814), the de Belen version (by Gaspar Aquino de Belen of Such as the. in 1704), the de la Merced (by Aniceto de la Merced of Norzagaray, Bulacan in 1856) and the de Guia version (by Luis de Guia in 1750). Critics are generally not agreed whether it be the Pilapil or the de la Merced type which is the most popular. 6. Urbana at Felisa.

A book by Modesto para Castro, the so called Dad of Classic Prose in Tagalog. These are generally letters between two sisters Urbana by Felisa and possess influenced significantly the behavior of folks in culture because the letters dealt with great behavior. several. Ang Mga Dalit kay Maria (Psalms for Mary). A collection of tracks praising the Virgin Jane. Fr. Mariano Sevilla, a Filipino priest, wrote this kind of in 1865 and it absolutely was popular especially during the Maytime “Flores para Mayo festival. C. LITERARY COMPOSITIONS 1 . Arte y Reglas entre ma Lengua Tagala (Art and rules in the Tagalog language). Written by Fr.

Blancas sobre San Jose and translated to Tagalog by Tomas Pinpin in 1610. installment payments on your Compendio de la Lengua Tagala (Understanding the Tagalog language). Written by Fr. Gaspar de San Agustin in 1703. 3. Vocabulario de la Lenguaje Tagala (Tagalog vocabulary). The first Tagalog dictionary authored by Fr. Pedro de San Buenaventura in 1613. four. Vocabulario de la Lengua Pampanga (Pampanga vocabulary). The 1st book in Pampanga written by Fr. Diego in 1732. 5. Terminología de la Lengua Bisaya (Bisayan vocabulary). The best language publication in Visayan by Mateo Sanchez in 1711. 6th. Arte de la Lengua Ilokana (The Artwork of the Ilocano language).

The first Ilocano grammar publication by Francisco Lopez. six. Arte de la Lengua Bicolana (The Artwork of the Bicol language). The first publication in the Bicol language and written by Fr. Marcos Lisbon in 1754. D. PEOPLE SONGS. Folks songs started to be widespread inside the Philippines. Every region acquired its nationwide song through the lowlands to the mountains of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Folk music truly manifest the artsy feelings of the Filipinos. That they show the Filipinos’ innate gratitude for and love of beauty. The examples happen to be Leron-Leron Sinta, Pamulinawen, Dandansoy, Sarong Banggi and Atin Cu Pung Singsing. Elizabeth.

RECEREATIONAL PERFORMS. There are many pastime plays performed by Filipinos during the Spanish times. The majority them had been in graceful form. Here are examples: 1 ) Tibag ” the word tibag means to excavate. This ritual was helped bring here by the Spaniard to remind the folks about the search of St . Helena for the Cross on what Jesus passed away. 2 . Lagaylay ” this is a special occasion to get the Pilarenos of Sorsogon during Maytime to meet. As early as April, the taking part ladies are chosen and often, mothers you are not selected their ladies in order to satisfy a threaten made during an illness or perhaps for a benefit received.

In certain parts of Bicol, a different demonstration is made however the objective is a same ” praise, esteem and giving of love for the Blessed Mix by St . Helen around the mound the lady had dug in. several. The Cenaculo ” this is certainly a remarkable performance to commemorate the passion and fatality of Christ. There are two kinds: the Cantada and Hablada. In the Hablada the lines are spoken in a more deliberate fashion showing the rhythmic measure of each verse and the rhyming in each stanza and is also more sensible in idea, the Cantada is chanted like the Pasion. The Cenaculo is crafted in octosyllabic verse, with 8 passages to the stanza.

The full length versions take about three or more nights of staging. Artists come in halloween costumes with wigs and performers are carefully chosen for virtuous your life. One functions the function of Christ and one other the function of the Virgin Mary. Many famous Cenaculo players range from Tagalog parts although there are those via Ilocos, Pampanga, Bicol and both Sibulanon and Hiligaynon. 4. Panunuluyan ” this really is presented ahead of 12: 00 on Xmas Eve. This can be a display of the search of the Virgin Mary and St . Joseph for an inn wherein to deliver the infant Jesus. your five.

The Salubong (or Panubong) The Salubong is a christmas play that dramatizes the meeting in the Risen Christ and his Mother. It is continue to presented in lots of Philippine towns. 6. Carillo (Shadow Play) ” this is a form of remarkable entertainment performed on a moonless night during a town vacación or about dark times after a collect. This shadow play is done by predicting cardboard numbers before a lamp against a white sheet. The figures are moved like marionettes whose dialogues happen to be produced by a lot of experts. The dialogues are drawn from a Corrido or perhaps Awit or any religious play interspersed with songs.

They are called simply by various labels in different areas: Carillo in Manila, Rizal and Batangas and Laguan, TITRES in Ilocos Septentrión, Pangasinan, Bataa, Capiz and Negros, TITIRI in Zambales, GAGALO or perhaps KIKIMUT in Pampanga and Tarlac, and ALIALA in La Union. 7. The Zarzuela ” considered the dad of the theatre, it is a musical comedy or perhaps melodrama three acts which in turn dealt with man’s passions and emotions like love, hate, revenge, rudeness, avarice or any social or perhaps political proble. 8. The Sainete ” this was a quick musical comedy popular throughout the 18th century.

They were high comedies displayed between acts of lengthy plays and were generally performed simply by characters in the lower classes. Themes were taken from everyday routine scenarios. N. THE MORO-MORO. Like the Cenaculo, the Moro-moro is offered also on the special stage. This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the individuals and to be reminded of their Christian religion. The plot is generally the same regarding a Christian princess or maybe a nobleman’s daughter who is captured by the Mohammedans. The father organizes a relief party in which fighting involving the Moros as well as the Christians occur.

The Mohammedans are conquered by a few miracle or perhaps Divine Intermédiaire and the Mohammedans are transformed into Christianity. In some instances, the whole kingdom is baptized and converted. One example with this is Prinsipe Rodante. G. KARAGATAN. This can be a poetic vehicle of any socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. In this contest, basically formal, a ritual is performed based on a legend of a princess who dropped her ring into the middle of the ocean and who offered her hand in marital life to anyone that can obtain it. A leader starts off with an extemporaneous poem announcing the purpose.

He then spins a “lumbo o “tabo noticeable with a white line. Whomever comes in the direction in the white range when the rotating stops gets his turn to “go into the sea to look for the ring.  This means a lady will inquire him a riddle of course, if he is able to answer, he will supply the ring towards the girl. H. DUPLO. The Duplo change the Karagatan. This is a poetic joust in speaking and thinking. The tasks are obtained from the Holy bible and by proverbs and saying. Most commonly it is played during wakes to get the useless. I. THE BALAGTASAN. This can be a graceful joust or a contest of skills in debate on a particular topic or issue.

This is replaced the DUPLO and is organised to honor Francisco “Balagtas Baltazar. L. THE DUNG-AW. This is a chant in free verse by a deprived person or perhaps his agent beside the corpse of the useless. No distinct meter or perhaps rhyming scheme is used. The individual chanting that freely recites in graceful rhythm according to his feelings, feelings and thoughts. It is personal and usually handles the life, sufferings and eschew of the dead and includes apologies for his misdeeds. K. THE AWIT as well as the CORRIDO. Some use these two interchangeably since distinction is not clear. The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)

Following 300 years of passivity under Spanish guideline, the Philippine spirit reawakened when the several priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were guillotined devoid of sufficient proof of guilt. This occurred for the 17th of February. This is buttressed together with the spirit of liberalism if the Philippines opened to community trade device coming of the liberal innovator in the person of Chief excutive Carlos Karen de la Torreta. The Spaniards were unable to suppress the tide of rebellion among the list of Filipinos. The once religious spirit changed itself into one of nationalism and the Filipinos demanded changes in the government in addition to the cathedral.

A. The Propaganda Movements (1872-1896) This kind of movement was spearheaded generally by the perceptive middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo de Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Escaparate, Mariano Ponce, Jose Mother. Panganiban, and Pedro Affettuoso. The objectives of this movements were to look for reforms and changes just like the following: 1 . To acquire equal treatment for the Filipinos as well as the Spaniards underneath the law. installment payments on your To make the Israel a colony of The country. 3. To regenerate Filipino manifestation in the The spanish language Cortes. four. To Filipinize the parishes. 5. To achieve the Filipinos freedom of talk, of the press, assembly and then for redress of grievances.

M. Highlights from the Propaganda Movement There were three principal commanders of the Promoción movement. These were Jose G. Rizal, Marcelo H. de Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlights about them and what they have done for our region. DR . JOSE P. RIZAL Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonzo sumado a Realonda was created on 06 19, 1861 at Calamba, Laguna. His first educator was his mother Teodora Alonozo. This individual studied at the Ateneo de Manila, began medicine for UST and finished with the Universidad Central of This town. He also studied on the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg.

He perished by musketry in the hands of the Spaniards on Dec 30, 1896 on costs of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan and Dimasalang. His books and writings: 1 . NOLI ME TANGERE. This was the book that provided spirit towards the propaganda movements and paved the way to the revolution against The country. In this publication, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run govt in the Philippines. The Spaniards prohibited the reading on this novel but a lot of translations could enter quietly in the country whether or not it means death to those caught in possession of these people.

The NOLI gave Philippine literature the immortal heroes Maria Clara, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, Elias, Sisa, Pilosofong Tasio, Dona Victorina, Kapitana Maria, Basilio and Crispin, Rizal had a powerful coop in the delineation of these character types. 2 . ESTE FILIBUSTERISMO. This can be a follow up to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI exposed those inside the government and in the church. However , the NOLI has become dubbed the novel of society whilst that of FILI is that of politics. 3. MI ULTIMO ADIOS (My Previous Farewell).

It was a poem by Rizal while having been incarcerated by Fort Santiago and is the one that can assess favorably with the best in the earth. It was just after his death when ever his name was affixed for the poem. some. SOBRE LA INDOLENCIA DE LOS FILIPINOS (On the Somnolence of the Filipinos). An dissertation on the alleged Filipino somnolence and an assessment of the reasons behind such accusations. 5. FILIPINAS DENTRO DE CENTENAR ANOS (The Philippines in a Century). An essay predicting the increasing influence of the US inside the Philippines plus the decreasing interest of The european union here.

Rizal predicted that if there is some other colonizer in the Philippines in the future, it would be the united states. 6. A LA JUVENTUD FILIPINA (To the Filipino Youth). A composition Rizal committed to the Philippine youth their studies at UST. several. EL CONSEJO DE L’ENSEMBLE DES DIOSES (The Council of the Gods). An allegorical play manifesting admiration for Cervantes. 8. JUNTO AL PASIG (Beside the Pasig River). Written by Rizal if he was 14 years of age. being unfaithful. ME PIDEN VERSOS (you actually asked Me for Verses), 1882 and A LAS FLORES DE HEIDELBERG (To the Flowers of Heidelberg). Two poems manifesting Rizal’s uncommon depth of emotion. twelve.

NOTAS AD MODUM OBRA SUCESOS DE LAS FILIPINAS FOR EL DOCTOR ANTONIO PARA MORGA (Notes on Filipino Events by simply Dr . Antonio de Morga): 1889 11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS SOBRE UN ALUMNO DE MANILA (P. Jacinto: Memoirs of any Student of Manila) 1882 12. COMÚN DE DELIRIO DE IDEAL AMERICA (Diary of a Journey to North America) MARCELO H. DELETE PILAR Marcelo H. delete Pilar is usually popularly known for his dog pen name of Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat and Dolores Manapat. Having been born by Cupang, San Nicolas, Bulacan on Aug 30, 1850. His parents were Julian H. del Pilar, observed Filipino writer and Biasa Gatmaita. His brother was your priest Fr.

Toribio delete Pilar who had been banished to Marianas in 1872. Because there were a large number of children in the family, Marcelo gave up his share of his inheritance for his other siblings. Marcelo started out schooling at the school of Mr. Flores and then utilized in that of San Jose before UST. His last year in law school was interrupted for 8 years following he had close with the parish priest within a baptism at San Miguel, Manila in 1880. He established the Diariong Tagalog in 1883 where he uncovered the evils of the The spanish language government inside the Philippines and to avoid the phony accusations hurried at him by the priests.

To avoid exile, he was required to travel to Spain in 1888. He was assisted by Fr. Serrano Laktaw in submitting a different Cathecism and Passion Book wherein they made fun of the priests. They also produced the DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN and KAIINGAT KAYO taken from the word IGAT, a kind of fish fish found in national politics. Upon his arrival in Spain, he substituted Graciano Lopez Jaena as editor of LA FRATERNIDAD, a newspaper which started to be the vehicle thru which reconstructs in the authorities could be figured out. This did not last long for he got sick as well as to reach Hong Kong from in which he could arouse his countrymen.

He passed away of tuberculosis in Spain but before he died, he asked his friends to tell his wife and children that he was my apologies he had not been able to put money them goodbye, to tell others about the fate of the countrymen and also to continue aiding the country. Plaridel has genuinely earned a niche in the history of our land. Even today, many streets have been completely named after him. The former Kingwa has been called Plaridel, the Malolos Secondary school is now Marcelo H. del Pilar Secondary school and especially, his patriotism and bravery will remain surviving in our remembrances. Writings of Marcelo L. del Base 1 .

PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love of Country). Translated from your Spanish PAIXÃO PATRIA of Rizal, printed on Aug 20, 1882, in Diariong Tagalog. installment payments on your KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful). A hilarious and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the new NOLI of Rizal, printed in Barcelona in 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here. 3. DASALAN IN TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes). Similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, released in Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, de Pilar was called “filibuster.  Required for admirable tone of entreaty, petition, appeal and superb use of Tagalog.. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God’s Goodness). Published in Barcelona, it absolutely was also like a cathecism sarcastically aimed resistant to the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love to get nature. your five. SAGOT SOCIAL FEAR ESPANYA SOCIAL FEAR HIBIK NG PILIPINAS (Answer to Italy on the Request of the Filipinos). A poem pleading pertaining to change from The country of spain but that Spain is old and weak to grant any kind of aid towards the Philippines. This kind of poem is answer to that of Hermenigildo Flores’ Hibik social fear Pilipinas (A Plea from the Philippines). 6.

DUPLUHAN¦DALIT¦MGA BUGTONG (A poetical contest in narrative pattern, psalms, riddles). A compilation of poems on the oppression by the priests in the Thailand. 7. LA SOBERANIA SOBRE PILIPINAS (Sovereignty in the Philippines). This reveals the injustices of the friars to the Pilipinos. 8. POR TELEFONO (By Telephone) 9. PASIONG DAPAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG TAONG BABASA (Passion which should arouse the hearts with the readers) GRACIANO LOPEZ JAENA (1856-1896) A most notable hero and guru of the Thailand, Graciano Lopez Jaena was born on January 18, 1856 and passed away on January 20, 1896.

The take great pride in of Jaro, Iloilo, this individual won the admiration with the Spaniards and Europeans. He could be a well-known writer and orator inside the Philippines. He wrote 95 speeches that were published simply by Remigio Garcia, former bookstore owner in Manila Filatica and that happen to be still examine up to no by contemporary Filipinos. Lopez Jaena still left the Philippines in 1887 with the help of Wear Claudio Lopez, a abundant uncle, in order to escape consequence form his enemies and arrived at Valencia, the center from the Republican motion of the Spaniards.

He gained the acquaintance of the large officials just like Piy Margall, Morayta, Moret, Castelar, and Salmeron. Coming from Valencia, this individual moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine LA SOLIDARIDAD. This kind of later became the official tone of the Affiliation Hispano para Filipinas (a Filipino-Spanish Association) composed of Filipinos and Spaniards who performed for reconstructs in the Israel. Because of this, Jaena successfully confirmed the Spaniards and the people today belonging to the world how a newspaperman can easily introduce within law and reforms to a better your life and progress.

Jaena, even though he failed to become a teacher, was also a teacher in a way to his friends and relatives in the Philippines. Just like Antonio Maria Regidor, Tomas G. delete Rosario and Felipe Calderon, he stood for the separation of church and state at no cost education, better government and schools, liberty of worship and for persistent and free of charge university. This individual sided with Rizal inside the controversy among Rizal and del Pilar over whom should mind the Affiliation Hispano sobre Filipinas in Madrid. This individual returned to the Philippines to request donations to carry on a new federal government called Un Latigo Franquista or Pambansang Latigo.

This individual sold the rights of La Fraternidad ot del Pilar who become a lawyer and had brought in money via his sojourn in Spain. Graciano Lopez Jaena died within a charity medical center in Barcelona on January 20, 1896, eleven weeks before his best friend Rizal was shot at the Luneta on Dec 30, 1896. A. The Works of Graciano Lopez Jaena 1 . ANG FRAY BOTOD (Friar Botod). Among his functions written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt assaulting the friars in the Korea. He uncovered how a few of the friars were greedy, ambitious and wrong. 2 .

LA HIJA DE FRAILE (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTING IS DEFINITELY HAMBUG (Everything is simple show). Below Jaena points out the disaster of marrying a Spaniard. 3. SA MGA PILIPINO 1891¦ A speech which will aimed to enhance the condition of the Filipinos for being free and progressive. four. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY KOLUMBUS (An Oration to Commemorate Columbus). A speech this individual delivered in Madrid for the 39th anniversary of the breakthrough of America 5. EN HONOR DE PRESIDENTE MORAYTA DE LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO FILIPINO 1884. In this article he acknowledged Gen. Morayta for his equal remedying of the Filipinos.. EN EXCLUSIVE CHANCE DE LOS MEISTRAS LUNA Sumado a RESURRECCION ALTRUISTA. A honest expression of praise to get the art of Hidalgo on the condition of the Filipinos under the Spaniards. 7. COITO A ESPANA O A LAS JOVENES DE MALOLOS (Love to get Spain in order to the Junior of Malolos). The idea is about how girls were taught The spanish language in educational institutions and in whose teachers were the governors-general of the place. 8. EL BANDOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (Banditry in the Philippines). Jaena refuted the existence of banditry in the Thailand and of just how there should be laws and regulations on robbery and other reforms. 9.

PRIZE EN PILIPINAS (Honor inside the Philippines). The triumphant exposition of Luna, Resurrecion and Pardo para Tavera in the thesis that intellect or knowledge provides honor to the Philippines. 15. PAG-ALIS SOCIAL FEAR BUWIS SA PILIPINAS (Abolition of Fees in the Philippines) 11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (Sufferings of the Philippines). Jaena refers here to the wrong management of education inside the Philippines 1887. B. DIFFERENT PROPAGANDISTS ANTONIO LUNA Antonio Luna was obviously a pharmacist who was banished by Spaniards to Spain. He joined the Propaganda Motion and added his writings to LA SOLIDARIDAD.

Almost all of his works dealt with Filipino customs and more were claims about how the Spaniards happened to run the government. His pen brand was Tagailog. He passed away at the age of 33 in June 1899. Having been put to loss of life by the troops of Recompensa because of his instant surge to popularity which started to be a danger to Propina. Some of his works are: 1 . NOCHE BUENA (Christmas Eve). That pictured true Filipino lifestyle. 2 . SE DEVIERTEN (How They Diverted Themselves). A dig in a boogie of the Spaniards where the everyone was very packed. 3. LA TERTULIA FILIPINA (A Philippine Conference or perhaps Feast).

Describes a Filipino custom which usually he thought was a lot better than the The spanish language. 4. POR MADRID (For Madrid). A denouncement of Spaniards whom claim that the Philippines can be described as colony of Spain but who think of Filipinos because foreigners when it comes to collecting income taxes for stamps. 5. LA CASA DE HUEPEDES (The Landlady’s House). Depicts a landlady who have looks for boarders not for funds but in in an attempt to get a hubby for her kid. MARIANO PONCE Mariano Ponce became an editor-in-chief, biographer and specialist of the Promoción Movement. This individual used Tikbalang, Kalipulako, and Naning while pennames.

The normal themes of his functions were the values of education. This individual also wrote about how the Filipinos were oppressed by foreigners along with the problems of his countrymen. Among his writings had been: 1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend of Bulacan). Contains stories, and folklores of his native area. 2 . PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (The Beheading of Longinos). A play shown in the plaza of Malolos, Bulacan. 3. RELACIONADA FILIPINOS (About the Filipinos) 4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INDO-TSINA (The Filipinos in Indo-China) PEDRO AFFETTUOSO Pedro Affettuoso was a scholar, dramatic, investigator and novelist of the Divulgación Movement.

This individual also joined up with the Confraternity of Masons and the Compa?ia Hispano-Pilipino to be able to further the aims of the Movement. He was the initially Filipino copy writer who steered clear of censorship in the press during the last day of the Spanish colonization. The following had been a few of his wrtings: 1 . NINAY. The first cultural novel in Spanish by a Filipino. 2 . A MI MADRE (To My Mother). Shows the importance of a mother especially in the home. 3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS (Sampaguitas and Varied Poems). A collection of his poems. JOSE MOTHER. PANGANIBAN Jose Ma. Panganiban hid his identity at the rear of his penname JORMAPA.

He was also known for achieveing photographic brain. He was an associate of a range of movements pertaining to the country. A few of his writings were: 1 . ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My Native Land) 2 . ANG AKING BUHAY (My Life) 3. SU PLANO DE ESTUDIO (Your Study Plan) 4. UN PENSAMIENTO (The Thinking) C. Period of Active Revolution (1896-1898) The Filipinos did not find the reforms demanded by the propagandists. The government switched deaf the ears to these petitions, oppression continuing and the cathedral and the authorities became a lot more oppressive to the Filipinos. The great intentions of Spain were reversed by the friars who were lording it out in the Israel.

Because of this, not really a few of the Filipinos affiliated with the La Confederación Filipina (a civic organization suspected to be revolutionary and which activated Rizal’s banishment to Dapitan). Like Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto, Apolinario Mabini, Jose Palma, and Pio Valenzuela decided that there was simply no other method except to revolt. The gist of literature included mostly accusations against the authorities and was meant to arouse the people to unite also to prepare for self-reliance. D. Features of the Effective Revolution The noted frontrunners of this period were Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Apolinario Mabini.

These are their contributions to our country. ANDRES BONIFACIO Andres Bonifacio is known best as the daddy of Filipino Democracy, nevertheless more than others, as the Father of the Katipunan because he led in creating the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galanga Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Andres Bonifacio came from an undesirable family and it is said that what he learned he acquired from the university of knowledge. He was a voracious visitor and between those this individual loved to see which turned on his innovative spirit had been the NOLI and the FILI of Rizal. He joined the La Liga Filipina founded simply by Rizal in 1892.

He established the Katipunan which triggered the spirit of freedom in particular when Rizal was banished to Dapitan, Mindanao. Bonifacio is better known as the great Revolutionary rather than writer although he likewise wrote things which opened the way for the revolution and which also became part of our books. Among his works had been: 1 . ANG DAPAT MABATID NG MGA TAGALOG (What the Tagalogs Should Know) 2 . KATUNGKULANG GAGAWIN NG MGA ANA NG BAYAN (Obligations of the Countrymen). This can be an outline of obligations the same as the 10 best practices of Goodness. 3. PAG-IBIG SA TINUBUAN LUPA (Love of One’s Indigenous Land).

A poem using a title comparable to that of Marcelo H. del Pilar. 5. HULING PAALAM (Last Farewell). A translation of Mi Ultimo Adios of Rizal in Tagalog. EMILIO JACINTO Emilio Jacinto was the intelligent assistant of Andres Bonifacio in the establishment of the Katipuna. He is called the Brains of the Katipunan. He modified Kalayaan (Freedom) a Katipunan newspaper. Bonifacio withdrew his writing in the Kartilya in deference to Jacinto’s act as secretary of the Katipunan. His Kartilya was the one accompanied by the people of the business. Here are handful of his writings: 1 .

KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN (A base book on the Katipunan) 2 . LIWANAG BY DILIM (Light and Darkness). A collection of essays on diverse subjects just like freedom, function, faith, govt, love of country. a few. A MI MADRE (To My Mother). A coming in contact with ode to his mom. 4. P? LINJE MED PATRIA (To My Country). His masterpiece. APOLINARIO MABINI Apolinario Mabini is known in literature and history since the Elegant Paralytic and the Brains of the Revolution. He was born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas upon July twenty two, 1864. Because he was born of any poor family he had to work in in an attempt to study.

This individual became recognized to his instructors and classmates at Letran and the UST because of his sharp memory and the basic clothes this individual used to wear during his training. He became the right-hand of Emilio Aguinaldo when the latter founded his Republic in Malolos. His contributions to literature were composing on authorities society, viewpoint and national politics. Here are some of his works: 1 . EL VERDADERO DECALOGO (The True Decalogue or Ten Commandments). This was his masterpiece wonderful aim in this article was to pass on the heart of nationalism. 2 . EL DESAROLLO Con CAIDA ENTRE MA REPUBLICA (The Rise and Fall in the Philippine Republic) 3.

SA BAYANG PILIPINO (To the Filipino Nation) 4. PAHAYAG (News) ADDITIONAL REVOLUTIONISTS JOSE PALMA Jose Palma shot to popularity because of his Himno Franquista Filipino (The Philippine Countrywide Anthem) that was set to music by Julian Felipe. Having been born in Tondo, Manila on Summer 6, 1876. His buddy Rafael Laureles became the president with the UP. He joined the revolution against the Americans combined with Gregorio de Pilar, the youngest Filipino general who have died during the revolution. Besides the National Anthem, here are his other functions: 1 . MELANCOLIAS (Melancholies). An amount of his poems. 2 . SOBRE MI JARDIN (In My own Garden).

A poem conveying one’s longings for his sweetheart. PAPERS DURING THE TREND In the hard work of the Revolutionists to pass on to the universe their longings for their region, many magazines were organized during the Innovative period. They were: 1 . HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION. Printed the decrees of the Revolutiary Govt, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism. 2 . LA INDEPENDENCIA (Independence). Edited by simply Antonio Escaparate and in whose aim was for Filipino Independence. 3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (The Philippine Republic). Established by Pedro Paterno in 1898. 5. LA EMANCIPACIÓN (Liberty). Modified by Clemente Zulueta.

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