string(94) ‘ eventually satisfied in Yauri and regions of Lopa and Laru \(Gunganchi’s neighbouring areas\)\. ‘
ASPECTS OF THE PHONOLOGY OF GUNGANCHI DIALECT BABATUNDE, Oluwatobi Olayemi 07/15CB045 A RESEARCH JOB SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND NIGERIAN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES, FACULTY OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN ILORIN – NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR BEING THE DEGREE OF BACHELORS OF DISCIPLINES (B. A. Hons) IN LINGUISTICS MAY WELL, 2011.
QUALIFICATION This dissertation has been browse and authorized as conference the requirements of Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Dialects, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. _________________________________________________ DR . (MRS. ) W. E. AROKOYODATE Project Manager ________________________________________________ PROF. A. S i9000. ABDUSSALAMDATE Brain of Section _________________________________________________ EXTERIOR EXAMINERDATE DEDICATION This task work can be dedicated to the Almighty God, the Leader and Tissot, who provides wisdom and excellence. My personal dear father, Engr. O. A. Falade, who has been there for me up till this time around. You are my hero. May God reward you. ACKNOLWEDGEMENTS My own profound honor goes to our creator for viewing me through my research at the School of Ilorin. He has been the Alpha and Omega, my own help, ideas and the method to obtain knowledge and wisdom.
This individual alone warrants my appreciation. Also, my gratitude would go to my lovely parents, ENGR. AND MRS. O. A. FALADE for love, proper care, advice, assistance and for offering for all my own educational demands. The Changeless God will certainly grant you long life, and allow you to obtain the fruits of your labour (Amen). You are the best parents in the world, I really like you very much. I likewise appreciate the superb efforts of my capable supervisor, Dr . (Mrs. ) B. At the. Arokoyo, whom guided myself through inside my research work, the girl gave me her time and motherly assistance in spite of the inconvenience. May well the Lord be with you and praise you (Amen). I also appreciate all my lecturers.
I would like to also prefer the love and prayers of my child brother BABATUNDE JOHN TEMITOPE. And my aunts Mrs. O. Con. Philips and Miss Olushola Faniyi. We also want to appreciate the effort of Ogunbiyi Abayomi. You all have been wonderful. My honest gratitude would go to my informant Corporal Labbo Alkali whom helped me in acquiring all necessary information about Gunganchi. May our creator reward you richly (Amen). Also, I appreciate my friends: Bakare Bimbo, Olagbenro Adulador, Dikko Oluwaseun, Adebayo Funke, Saka Tokunbo, Ogunbowale Tobi, Adekoya Oluwaseun, Ajagunna Gideon, Bamidele Bukola, Oyeniran Gbolagade Adebayo Adewale.
I likewise appreciate the work of my pastor, Pastor Tunde and others who have in a single way and also the other written for the success of this research. Thanks all. TABLE OF ITEMS Title Pagei Certificationii Dedicationiii Acknowledgements iv Table of Contentsvi SECTION ONE: 1 . 0Introduction one particular 1 . 1General Background1 1 . 2Historical Background of Gunganchi People2 1 ) 3Sociocultural Background or Account of the Gunganchi People4 1 ) 4Genetic Category of Gunganchi10 1 . 5Scope and Organization of Analyze 11 1 . 6Data Collection12 1 . 7Data Analysis13 1 ) 8Review of the chosen Assumptive Framework13 PART TWO: SIMPLE PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS. 0Introduction 21 years old 2 . 1Phonology21 2 . 2Sound Inventory of Gunganchi24 installment payments on your 3Phonological Information of Gunganchi Consonants and their Distribution twenty-eight 2 . 4Vowels42 2 . 5Distribution of Vowels45 2 . 6Distribution of Nasalized Vowels51 installment payments on your 7Tonal Inventory54 2 . 8Syllable Inventory 56 2 . 9Distinctive Features 59 CHAPTER 3: PHONOLOGICAL PROCEDURES IN GUNGANCHI 3. 0Introduction 70 three or more. 1Phonological Processes70 CHAPTER 4: TONAL TECHNIQUES AND SYLLABLE PROCESSES 5. 0Introduction 80 4. 1Tone System in Gunganchi78 some. 2Functions of Tone in Gunganchi82 4. 3Tonal Processes83 4. 4Syllable Structure85 four. 5Syllable Structure Rule in Gunganchi89
PHASE FIVE: BRIEF SUMMARY, FINDINGS/OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND REALIZATION 5. 0Summary93 5. 1Finding/Observations94 5. 2Recommendations95 5. 3Conclusion96 References97 PHASE ONE 1 . 0INTRODUCTION This chapter can be aimed at discussing the case analyze of the Gungawa people who speak Gunganchi terminology. It will take note their basic background, traditional background, sociocultural profile, the genetic category of Gunganchi language. This kind of chapter may also discuss the scope and organization of study, the chosen assumptive framework, data collection, and the data analysis for this task work. 1 . 1GENERAL BACKGROUND
The Gunganchi people are a tribe which can be also called the “Bareshe” people by their Hausa neighbours this means “Island Dwellers”, it was told they were given this name because of their closeness to lakes and rivers. Among themselves, they are commonly called “Gungawa, Tsureja, Bareshe or Yaurawa” people. Their vocabulary has several names just like: Gunganchi, Tsureshe, Gunga or Tsureja plus the name directed at their terrain is either Reshe or Gungu. The present Gunganchi people are the tribe who have fled to the nearby Tropical isle of Niger in the the middle of nineteenth 100 years and eventually resolved in a new site named Gungu or Yelwa.
The Gunganchi individuals are said to be the initial inhabitants of Yauri. Throughout the British plan, the state of Yauri as an emirate as well as the state of Yelwa while the seat in the Emir of Yauri proved that both Yauri and Yelwa started to be Hausarized because of their contact with the Hausa people. Today, the Yauri people speak mostly Hausa language. The Gunganchi persons lived in islets (very small islands) and shores from the Niger above Bussa until the creation of Kainji Lake in 1974 which interrupted their pay out and their living outside Kebbi State. 1 ) HISTORICAL HISTORY OF GUNGANCHI PEOPLE In respect to oral history, the Gunganchi people has distinct histories that has been narrated which in turn associated with their very own origin which will be discussed below. In the nineteenth century, a descendant of a warrior called ‘kasira’ who is also known as ‘Kachin’ allied with the Hausa military to conquer the terrain in the serious North who later resolved with his co-fighters in the present Yauri town. A native speaker of Gunganchi who is referred to as “Agmalafiya” believe the Gunganchi people originated from Kabbawa.
This individual said they were hunters via Katsina State and further discussed that some individuals said the Gunganchi individuals are from the various other Yauri’s cultural groups which are Shangawa, Kambari, Kabbawa or perhaps Sarkawa, Dukawa etc . Another history advised us with their trace towards the Songhai players who originated in Mali to get territorial control and they at some point settled in Yauri and parts of Lopa and Laru (Gunganchi’s adjoining areas).
You read ‘Academic Research Akunna Onyedum’ in category ‘Free Research Paper Samples’ From your histories narrated above, it really is obvious the fact that Gunganchi people has no particular history regarding their source.
They are divergent in their famous roots. 1 . 2 . 1Population The Gunganchi people were regarding forty to sixty 1, 000 in 93. About thrity-five percent existed outside Yauri Local Government in Kebbi Point out, sixty percent lived in Yauri city, nine percent in Kotangora, Bussa and Borgu County and a single percent in Kiama Local Government Area in Kwara State. Back to 1990, the population in the speakers in Yauri had been referred to as Yaurawa or Reshewa in Hausa language.
In accordance to Agmalafiya who was described earlier, the Gunganchi individuals were called Yaurawa by Queen Amina of Zaria but generally called Gungawa among the Gunganchi in Diaspora and sometimes call up themselves Bareshe, which is the plural, or perhaps Ureshe, which can be the single. 1 . 3SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUND OR PROFILE IN THE GUNGANCHI PEOPLE According to the Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, lifestyle is the way of lifestyle, the traditions and values, art and social organization of a particular country or group. The Gunganchi individuals have a interpersonal and ethnic profile that is similar to those of their adjoining ethnic group, Hausa.
You are able to that their lifestyle can be centered on the Emirate’s system. The Gunganchi people have their sociocultural morals which are portrayed in their lifestyle, mode of dressing, profession, religion, celebrations, marriage program, naming wedding ceremony, burial wedding ceremony, their education system and political supervision. 1 . 3. 1Culture The Bareshe (Gunganchi) people are very cultured which will reflect within their mode of dressing, greetings, occupation and body color patterns like decorating the woman’s hip and legs with tattoo designs and large tribal represents on her encounter during the wedding.. 3. 2Mode of Dressing The Gunganchi people’s function of shower in the olden days differs from their dressing in these modern days. In the olden days, they used to dress in creature skin, when in these modern days, they will dress in ‘Banbariga’ which is the regular dress males while the ladies dress in loose covered clothing with a community embroidery shawl which is attached around the women’s body to wade off the sun. They can be mostly wearing loose robe for leisure. 1 . three or more. 3 Career The Gunganchi people are typically farmers and fishermen.
Their major crops are guinea corn, beans, rice, and onions as the fishing products which is a fish cage is named ‘Suru’ and ‘Hauwuya’ in Gunganchi dialect. The people are also known for their kayak and cushion making. 1 . 3. some Religion The Gunganchi folks are mostly Muslims and couple of traditional worshippers and very little Christians. 1 ) 3. 5Festivals The celebrations done in Gunganchi are called ‘Anipo’ festival and ‘Idembe’. Festivity. The blood of animals like goat or perhaps bushmeat is utilized as sacrifices to their gods during the event.
During the celebration, a circular seat is created by the people when eating. Such sittings are also shaped at incidents like wedding party, naming ceremony, sallah celebration and at rest joints. 1 ) 3. 6 Marriage Approach to the Gunganchi People The Gunganchi has a distinct approach by which marriage is done. It shows a lazy guy cannot get married to any Gunganchi lady because marriage is said to be a bit hard most especially intended for the men. Firstly, a man must inform his parents if perhaps he is deeply in love with a lady. After that, the man’s parents must make their son’s interest known to the lady’s parents.
He will probably then plantation for the lady’s relatives he hopes to marry from ahead of giving their consent. The farming length is not specified, the man is said to halt the farming when lady’s father is content and the final consent will be given to the man’s family members. The woman’s family will inform his relatives technically about their young one’s courtship together with the man prior to the wedding date is definitely chosen. Relating to Muauzu, the marriage or perhaps engagement ceremony is based on Islamic rites whereby the bride price (Zadaki) will be paid. The star of the wedding will be embellished with tattoos on her thighs and large tribal signifies on her face.
Foods ingested at the wedding are guinea corn pap, which is served in the morning and rice with fish soup and burukutu is dished up at dusk. Their sitting position is related to regarding the festival’s as mentioned before they sit down round a dish of guinea hammer toe pap on a mat, all their sitting lifestyle is the like the Hausas. Hence, the Gunganchi people inter marry with the Hausas. 1 . a few. 7Naming Service The Gunganchi do their very own naming service seven days following your child’s labor and birth and its frizzy hair will be shaved. Rice or guinea corn pap can be served on the ceremony with people sitting across the food.
Consequently , the child will be circumcised after ten years. 1 . 3. 8Burial Ceremony Like most tribes, the Gunganchi celebrate the loss of life of old person and mourn the death of a young person. That they investigate sudden or unusual death by simply consulting the oracle called “Gigo” (true god) or “Ujigo” (a god of thunder and rain). The oracle could make the nature of the departed to revenge for his or her fatality by eradicating the person that is responsible for their death. However , this practice is unusual to the neighborhood or serious Gunganchi persons. 1 . a few. 9Education Program
The Gunganchi value the Western education, they give education to both equally their men and female children. They have universities, they also employ their personal houses while schools. 1 . 3. 12 Political Supervision The Gunganchi adopted the program of their neighboring tribe (Hausa) which is the Emirate’s program because it is a multi-ethnic location that consist Yelwa, Lopa, Yauri, Laru people which in turn co-exist with them. The Emir’s building is situated in Yelwa, hence, the Gunganchi are the 1st settlers in Yauri. The appointed Emir is the ruler of all the ethnic groups under Yauri.
Through the British program, recognition was handed to the Yauri emirate and Gungu (Island) district from the Yauri Local Government which are today the center of Reshe (Gunganchi) population. In the political government of the Gunganchi people, succession is not really by genetic because the Emir must be appointed, despite the fact that a Gunganchi gentleman was the initially Emir of Yauri. The Emir need to have some features before he can be designated, like, he must be an elderly person, famous and respected among the cultural groups consisting of Yauri.
If a new Emir is appointed, turbaning will probably be done being a sign of leadership. The Emir rules the territory with his local chiefs known as “Sariki” in areas like Gungunsariki, Banha, Rekubolo, Toro, Zamari, Jalubabu etc . At present, the Local Govt Chairman is responsible for the business function of Yauri and also other governmental activities are carried out by the Kebbi State Government. Nevertheless , most of the Gunganchi people are bilingual, (they speak both Gunganchi and Hausa) but the bulk speaks Gunganchi at home especially the youths. Thus, the language in the emirate is Hausa with high respect.. 4GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF GUNGANCHI Genetic classification is the sub-grouping of all relevant languages in to genetic nodes (group of languages in each that one dialect is more tightly related to the other because group than to any vocabulary outside the group). The basis for genetic category is the proven fact that group of languages that reveal certain systemic resemblances possess inherited individuals similarities by a common beginning. Thus, innate classification makes two claims. First, it reinforces that certain languages are infact related to each other (i. electronic. hare one common ancestor). Second, it identifies how the different languages are related in the form of a branching plan. Gunganchi language falls within the Niger-Kordofanian language family. Photography equipment Language Afro-AsiaticNiger KordofanianNilo SaharanKhoisan MandeNew Benue Congo AtlanticVolta Congo Kordofanian OkoDefoidKainjiIdomoidEdoidWolof European KainjiEastern Kainji KamukuKainji LakeGunganchi (Gungawa)KambariBassaLopa 1 . 5SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION OF STUDY This kind of work is limited to the facets of the phonology of Gunganchi language in fact it is divided into five chapters.
Part one handles the preliminary part, which includes the general background, historical qualifications, sociocultural profile of Gunganchi people, genetic classification of Gunganchi dialect, scope and organization of study, info collection, info analysis as well as the review of the chosen theoretical framework. Phase two deals with the basic phonological concepts that requires the sound inventory of Gunganchi language whereby the tonal inventory and syllable products on hand of the language of analyze shall be talked about and the appear distributions including distinctive features.
Chapter three is based on the phonological techniques found in Gunganchi language. Then simply, chapter 4 will give attention to the tonal and syllable processes of Gunganchi language. Chapter five will sum up and determine the work. 1 . 6DATA COLLECTION In this research work, the method employed for our data collection is a direct translation method by English dialect to the job language which is Gunganchi based upon the Ibadan 400 wordlist. There was an immediate interview with all the language tool, thus, info elicitation was carried out with the wordlist recorded on audio cassette.
Informant’s Info: Name: Corporal Labbo Alloisomer Occupation: Jewellry Age: 4 decades Religion: Muslim Languages voiced apart from Gunganchi: Hausa and English Period of time spent in Reshe (Gunganchi): 20 years 1 ) 7DATA EXAMINATION To ensure an accurate data analysis in this research work, all the data collected were carefully and correctly created, tone proclaimed and transcribed. The data collected were applied according to how the local speaker utilized them with no imposing any kind of extra rules or best practice rules. 1 . REVIEW OF THE CHOSEN THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTION The construction adopted in this research work can be Generative Phonology, which was developed by Chomsky and Halle inside the early 1954s, it is a component of generative grammar. This framework assigns the proper phonetic representations to ‘utterances’ in such a way regarding reflect a native speaker’s internalized sentence structure. According to Oyebade (2008: 9), Generative Phonology can be described as theory which can be built for the insight of taxonomic phonemics even while redesigning the focus of phonological research.
The major determination for this assumptive framework was your clash between theoretical presumptions and linguistic data under the theory of classical (taxonomic) phonemics. Generative phonology became popular at optimum speed in the 1960s, following the works of Chomsky and Entente (published in 1968 because “Sound Routine of English (SPE)”. This kind of theory states that the taxonomic approach of classical phonemics was not which will cover address correctly the trend of man speech.
The proponents on this new school of phonology suggest that a sufficient theory of phonology must account for: a) The sensation of dialect acquisition b) The puzzling fact that guy can still understand the speech of another even if this talk is faulty, and c) The indigenous speaker’s pure intuition about the physical cosmetic makeup products of the speech of his language. 1 ) 8. 1The Structure of Generative Phonology Generative phonology assumes three very crucial components: the underlying portrayal, the phonetic representation and the rules which in turn link both the together that may be called the phonological rules.
These components will be reviewed below. 1 . 8. 1 ) 1Underlying Representation Oyebade (2008: 12) assumes underlying representation to be a great abstract portrayal existing in the linguistic competence of the native speaker. The underlying portrayal is the most basic form of anything before any phonological rules have been applied to it. Actual representation shows what a local speaker is aware of the abstract underlying phonology of the language. Only at that level, products with stable meaning possess identical portrayal.
The underlying representation is usually known as “the phonological representation”, thus, the ability (competence) of the native audio to calculate a phrase is referred to as the phonological portrayal and this proficiency can be clinically investigated. There is certainly an presumption of an fundamental level where there is a one-to-one correspondence between form and meaning and which is precisely the same from one skilled speaker to a new which explains the confusing reaction of children in the obtain process.
Considering that the child stocks and shares the same competence (and therefore the same root representation) since the mature, it is affordable to imagine the child will expect precisely the same output because the mature will expect. The child might not be able to develop such an result since his production ability is sluggish in the purchase process than his proficiency. The supposition of an root representation which will accounts for the rapid control of defective input.
Both interlocutors include a shared competence which is accurate and invariant, the decoder portion participant thus has a original with which he can restructure the defective utterance of the encoder. Also, the underlying manifestation has the house of being encoded in “distinctive features” (these features will be discussed in the next chapter). This assumption can be motivated by the fact that dialect seems to target these features in making its choices instead of segments. 1 . 8. 1 . 2 The Phonetic Representation The phonetic representation may be the form of anything that is used and read. It is also referred to as “the surface level”.
Phonological structure demonstrates the linguistic competence with the native audio to figure out a phonetic representation pertaining to the probably infinite volume of sentences made by the syntactic component of the grammar. We could say that you cannot find any speaker of the language which includes heard each of the sentences in the language yet speaker has the capacity to understand any kind of sentence noticed. Phonetic portrayal indicates how a lexical item is to be noticed in speech. It is seen as degree of narrowness such that, at a minimum, any two sounds that are recognized in any human language happen to be differently displayed.
Generative phonology seems to consider this to be level to be trivial and never worth excessive attention except, perhaps as a source for the confirmation and approval of the proposed underlying rendering. 1 . eight. 13 Phonological Rules Phonological rules map underlying manifestation onto phonological representations. They delete, put, or alter segments, or change the highlights of segments. They may be said to show the derivational pattern or path of an item in its voyage from the actual level for the phonetic level. They must have the ability to capture the phonological phenomenon in the simplest form.
You will discover two types of rules in phonological rules: feature changing rules and fill-in rules. The feature changing guidelines change the top features of the suggestions to that with the output. However , the other kind of rules called fill-in rules are rules, because the identity implies, which in turn fill in bare slots. Phonological rules must be precise within a scientific consideration of linguistic phenomena. It absolutely was therefore advised that the rules should have their own format. For instance, a regulation can say insert a high entrance vowel among a group of consonants and we can easily have one other rule which in turn says place a high front side vowel after a word-final consonant.
These guidelines can be formalized thus: a. O(i/C____C m. O(i/C____# Since you can observe from the formalization in the two guidelines, they are identical in input and output. Furthermore, there is a lot of similarities in the environment. If the guidelines are kept like this, that may be, as two separate guidelines, the intended claim will be that these will be two separate and distinct processes. This is intuitively inappropriate and this loses a linguistically significant generalization. The two of these rules then can be collapsed as one and to catch the linguistically significant fact that we are working with the same procedure.
Thus (a) and (b) can be mixed as in (c) below: C c. O(i/C, , # that is, a high front vowel is injected either among two rimant or after a consonant in word final position. In phonological guidelines, notational products are used. They are conferences which make it possible to combine distinct nevertheless related phonological rules within a statement, guidelines may be collapsed in this way as long as they entail the same process. In other words, notational devices are abbreviation conferences aimed at minimizing several rules into one. The idea is to present more economically the facts of language.
There are notational products like: brace notation ( ), angled clump notation (), variable features or first notation ((), multiple changing notation ((, (,?, etc . ). The role of such devices is to make it possible for the phonologists to precisely and unambiguously state in guideline form and the process that may be taking place in language each time a pattern is usually observed. Second of all, it makes linguistiscally significant generalizations and claims regarding the way terminology works. Finally, and perhaps most trivially, it provides a shorthand abbreviatory method by which a fancy process can be captured because briefly as possible.
CHAPTER TWO BASIC PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS installment payments on your 0INTRODUCTION This chapter is founded on the phonology of Gunganchi language. Requirements inventory that involves the tonal inventory plus the syllable products on hand will be reviewed. It also targets the sound distribution of Gunganchi language the place that the distinctive features will be talked about. 2 . 1PHONOLOGY According to Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 2), phonology deals with just how speech noises are prepared into system for each individual language: such as: how the sounds can be mixed, the contact between them and exactly how they impact each other.
In phonology, the main ‘phone’ relates to ‘voice’, sound and ‘logos’ meaning ‘word, speech’ originates from the Greek phrases. Phonology as a subfield of linguistics may be the study with the rules lurking behind the way appears encode that means in vocabulary. Also, is it doesn’t study of sounds and patterns in a language. It might be said that phonology seeks to discern the sounds made in all human languages. Additionally , phonology studies how seems alternate this is the minimal significant sounds that happen to be ‘PHONEMES’. Nevertheless , phonemes happen to be sets of phones, which usually function as 1 unit within a language, and provide contrast among different words and phrases.
It is also a sound part of terms or syllables. In man language, a phoneme may be the smallest structural unit that distinguishes which means. The phonemic inventory of the language may be the set of phonemes it has. In the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabets), phonemes are traditionally enclosed in forward sashes (//) and speech music that is not phonemes are placed in brackets ([ ]). For instance , the /t/ sound in the English phrases ‘tip’, ‘stand’, ‘cat’ and ‘water’ are conceived of as being the same sound, although in every word they are pronounced to some extent differently, the may not even always be audible to native audio system.
One of the most significant tools to get examining phonemes is the ‘minimal pair’ meaning different words and phrases but fluctuate as a result of a single sound, that is, a pair of words which change only in one segment. Within a minimal pair, one can be sure that the difference among words is phonemic in nature, for the reason that segments in question are between the same environment and this may not be allophones of each and every other. Types of minimal set in Gunganchi are: [ut(i]’tree’ [at(i] ‘firewood’ [hina]’cow’ [wina]’tail’ [ureta]’right(side)’ upeta]’medicine’ [kwubanoh]’open’ [kwubaloh]’close’ [itamia]’push’ [igamia]’sweep’ A phoneme might encompass a lot of recognizable distinct speech sounds called ‘PHONES’. In phonetics, the smallest comprensible segment is known as a phone. In the examples stated earlier, the /t/ in ‘tip’ is equiped [th], while the /t/ in stand is unaspirated [t]. Thus, cell phones that are part of the same phonemes are called allophones such as [th] and [t] are allophones of the phoneme /t/ succumbed the illustrations given previous. Allophones are often conditioned by way of a environment.
For example , the English language phoneme /t/ is recognized as a faucet [r] among vowels in normal conversation when not preceeding a pressured vowel as with ‘butter’. In a case similar to this we can declare the quit [t] and tap [r] which are allophones of the phoneme /t/ are in ‘complementary distribution’, because every environment selects pertaining to either one or perhaps the other, plus the allophones themselves may be known as ‘COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION’. 2 . 2SOUND INVENTORY OF GUNGANCHI Man sounds could be grouped into two standard classes where they are present in Gunganchi. They can be: 1 . Rimant 2 . Vowels 2 .. 1Consonants Consonants happen to be sounds developed with an obstruction with the air passage someplace along the oral tract. A consonant when it comes to sound production is a sound which is blocked in some way by tongue or perhaps lip contact e. g. in Gunganchi, sounds like /k/, /p/ as in, /k/([ka? ina]’reply’ /p/([puteta]’forget’ rather than the unobstructed sound of a vowel. Consonant noises require a particular degree of constriction of the expressive tract within their production, consequently , at some point, directing, impeding or completely shutting off the airflow of surroundings in the mouth.
This constriction of the expressive tract may well involve total closure or partial drawing a line under. In terms of the sound system, the consonant is a sound that typically happens at the beginning or perhaps end with the syllable rather than in the middle of it, thus contrasting with vowels. Thus, the organs of speech that obstruct at some point in the oral cavity are referred to as ‘articulators’. In the glottis, past the velum, hard palate and alveolar shape and the tongue, to the teeth and lips.
The consonant noises are grouped by, a) Voicing b) Place of assemblage c) Method of articulation installment payments on your 2 . 1 . 1 Voicing Consonants can be voiced or voiceless. While the airstream comes to or perhaps from the lungs, it goes through the beginning between the glottis. If the expressive cords will be open, the environment passes through without blockage and the sounds that are made in this way, are described as ‘voiceless’. In case the vocal cords closed, then this air passing through the glottis causes those to vibrate making ‘voiced’ appears.
Some of the consonant sounds in Gunganchi can be found in pairs that differ in being voiced or voiceless e. g. /b/ and /p/ ( /b/ is usually voiced and /p/ may be the voiceless consonant in one couple. /k/ and /g/ are normally found in another pair, /k/ is usually voiceless as well as the voiced appear is /g/. Also, this applied to /d/ and /t/, /d/ can be voiced when /t/ is a voiceless consonant which varieties another match. 2 . installment payments on your 1 . two Place of Articulation It is the stage of assemblage where both the active and passive articulators meet or perhaps contact to create the desired consonant.
Here, we must do with the position from the tongue and lips. The places of articulation in Gunganchi are, bilabial, unaccented palato-alveolar, encubrir, labial-velar, paladial, glottal, palatalized velars and alveolar, labialized-alveolar and velars. 2 . 2 . 1 . three or more Manner of Articulation Manner of assemblage makes reference to the type of stricture which the articulators are making to generate the consonant sounds. The obstructions produced may be total, intermittent, incomplete or filter enough to cause scrubbing.
The manners of connection in Gunganchi are prevent, nasal, fricative, affricate, trill, lateral and approximant. However , it is noticed that there is the presence of consonant clusters in Gunganchi language that is certainly consonants taking place together side-by-side e. g. [riadda]’matchet’ [ubalkari]’male’ [kwa] ‘take(one thing)’ Therefore, the consonants attested in Gunganchi will be: /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tw/ /dw/ /dj/ /k/ /g/ /kw/ /gw/ kj/ /gj/ /gb/ /r/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /(/ /h/ /hj/ /ts/ /t(/ /? // /l/ /j/ /w/ /r/. 2 . 2 . 2 . one particular Gunganchi Consonant Chart |Bilabial |Alveolar |Labialized |Palatalize |Palate-alveolar |Palatal |Velar | | | | |alveolar |alveolar | | | | |High |+ |- |- |- |- |- |+ | |Low |- |- |- |+ |- |- |- | |Round |- |- |- |- |+ |+ |+ | |ATR |+ |+ |- |- |- |+ |+ | 2 . on the lookout for. 4Segment Redundancy for Gunganchi Consonants
Redundancy is the principle that helps in predicting some features from the presence of other features, thus, the feature that predicts the feature of some other is said to be redundant. Gunganchi language attest to several features which have been completely predictable at all levels of derivation. All the redundant features will be expressed since fill-in secret or [if –then]. However , the output of the phonological components need to specify almost all feature in such a way that it indicates important features employed in derivation. i)If:[+ syll] After that: + boy , downsides ii)If:[+ cons] Then: & voice , strid iii)If:[+ ant] Then simply:[+ cons] iv)If:[+ nas] In that case: – cont , strid + tone + boy 2 . 9. 5Segment Redundancy for Gunganchi Vowels | |i |e |( |a |? to |u | |High |+ |- |(-) |(-) |(-) |- |+ | |Low |(-) |- |- |+ |(-) |(-) |(-) | |Round |- |- |- |(-) |+ |+ |+ | |ATR |(+) |+ |- |(-) |- |+ |(+) | All of the predictable redundancies can be expressed because fill-in rules which are also referred to as if –then segment composition constraints because done pertaining to consonants above. i)If:[+ high] Then:[- low] ii)If:[+ low] Then:[- high] iii)If:[+ high] Then:[+ ATR] iv) In the event:[+ round] After that:[- low] v)If:[+ low] After that:[- round] vi)If:[+ low] After that:[- ATR] vii)If:[+ ATR] Then simply:[- low] viii)If:[- ATR] In that case:[- high]
However , redundancies come from any of two sources: the foremost is the try to express the physiological options (or impossibilities) of the oral organs. For instance , the constraints if [+ high] after that [- low] makes the declare that the tongue cannot be brought up and lowered at the same time. Put simply, if the tongue is elevated then it is not lowered and if it really is lowered it is certainly not raised. Since the physiological likelihood of the human vocal tract is universal to all human beings, this kind of redundancy is known as a universal 1. The second origin comes from the very fact that languages do not usually maximally employ all combinatorial possibilities logically expected when ever features get together. CHAPTER THREE PHONOLOGICAL OPERATIONS IN GUNGANCHI 3. ADVANTAGES This chapter will be talking about the phonological processes present in Gunganchi dialect. 3. 1PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES Phonological processes will be sound modifications motivated by the need to maintain euphony within a language or to rectify infractions of well-formedness constraints in the production of an utterance. (Oyebade 2008: 61). Portions are either within the same morpheme or at morpheme boundary beneath various conditions may experience certain improvements. Therefore , these types of changes are known as ‘phonological processes’. Environment within which sounds arise may have an effect on changes. The phonological operations in Gunganchi are: three or more. 1 . 1Assimilation
According to Oyebade (2008: 63), compression is the moment two contiguous sounds which may have different modes of creation become identical in some or perhaps all of the top features of their development. Assimilation may be the modification of sounds in the direction of greater likeness to the adjacent phonological environment (Langacker 1972: 270). Assimilation may be either partial or perhaps total. Tonal assimilation may be the converting of the changing section to become similar to other segment and assimilation could possibly be partial such that only a few features of the changing consonant (or vowel) becomes similar with that of the initiating section. Examples of retention in Gunganchi: ugika[ugjka]’bag’
Inside the above example, the been vocal velar prevent bears the feature ‘high’ of the vowel [i]. It is discovered that when the voiced desfigurar stop happen before a high unrounded front vowel, it becomes palatalized which usually shows compression has taken place. , cont+ syll , ant([high]__________- back , cor- rounded + voice+ high unun[unu]’mouth’ anuhin[anuhi]’teeth’ Inside the examples over, vowels accept the characteristic of the alveolar nasal. Thus, vowel becomes nasalized prior to alveolar sinus. + syll- cont -cons([+ nas]__________+ ould like + colora��o + nas 3. 1 ) 2Vowel Elision Vowel elision is another prevalent phonological method. According to Oyebade (2008: 69), vowels are usually removed when several vowels arise across morpheme boundary.
Once such an event is launched by morphological processes, the language may choose to drop the initial or the second of the contiguous vowels. Illustrations in Gunganchi are: [itsuria][akatua]([itsuriakatua] ‘buy’ ‘shoe”buy (a) shoe’ [ikabia][uwapo] ( [ikabiuwapo] ‘money’ ‘house”house rent’ However , it truly is observed that low backside unrounded vowels are removed at morpheme boundary in case the next morpheme begins which has a vowel. & syll+ syll + low(O___________- cons & back , round a few. 1 . 3Labialisation Labialisation may be the super-imposition of liprounding on the segment in such a way that the feature of a vowel now connects to the consonant articulated (Oyebade 2008: 66).
Examples of labializationin Gunganchi vocabulary are: [utw? ha]’ear’ [rotwua]’neck’ [abakjrdwola]’animal’ [ndwuwa]’person’ The alveolar stops [t] and [d] that are not obviously, they labialized take on the feature in the rounded vowels. We can consequently , say that unaccented stops turn into labialized ahead of back round vowels. , cont+ syll + ant([lab]_____________+ back + cor+ rounded Other examples of labialization will be: [igbagwua] ‘pepper’ [ugwohua]’kolanut’ [ribulukwu]’cooking’ [alokwotwo]’snail’ Additionally it is observed that velar halts [k] and [g] turn into labialized before back round vowels. , cont+ syll , ant([+lab]_____________+ back , cor+ circular 3. 1 ) 4Palatalisation
In accordance to Oyebade (2009: 65), palatalisation may be the super-imposition of tongue increasing on a part. Here are illustrations in Gunganchi language: [ugjika: ]’bag’ [akjikwa]’millet’ [inagji]’pull’ [gjirana]’descend’ In the over examples, desfigurar stops will be palatalized ahead of high vowel. , cont+ syll , ant([+ high]_____________+ high , cor three or more. 1 . 5Insertion Oyebade (2008: 74) says that: “Insertion is a phonological process whereby an extraneous element certainly not present originally is introduced into the utterance usually to be able to up unnecessary sequence”. Examples in Gunganchi are proven below. [upowabetatsunia]([upowabetatsunia] ten +one’eleven’ [upowabetat(zuwa]([upowabetat(zuwa] ten +six’sixteen’ alosobetatsunia]([alosobetatsunia] twenty +one’twenty one’ [alosobetajisoh]([alosobetajisoh] 20 or so +two’twenty two’ 1 . 3. 6Nasalisation Nasalisation is a method whereby a great oral portion acquires nasality from a neighbouring segment (Katamba 1989: 93). Nasalisation is significant in Gunganchi, for instance, [matsunih? ]’surpass’ [iji]’see’ [tsunia] ‘one’ [udaga] ‘stick’ Therefore , vowels become nasalised before unaccented nasal, that is certainly, + syll- cont , cons([+ nas]_____________+ ant + cor & nas PHASE FOUR TONAL PROCESSES AND SYLLABLE OPERATIONS 4. 0INTRODUCTION This Part will be speaking about the sculpt system and the processes present in Gunganchi terminology.
It will also concentrate on the syllable processes in Gunganchi vocabulary. 4. 1TONE SYSTEM IN GUNGANCHI Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 84-85) states that “In a large number of languages, message variation is used to distinguish 1 word from another. Languages which use pitch in this way happen to be known as ‘tone languages’, and the individual frequency patterns associated with words or perhaps syllables are known as ‘tones'”. According to Carlos and Haike (2005: 12), tone languages employed pitch contrasts to keep words apart in the same manner that languages use vowel and consonant for this purpose. Sculpt is the difference of two words together with the same segmental presentation by using its pitch.
And a language is said to be a tone language if the differences in word meaning happen to be signaled by the differences in pitch. Tone is essentially a property of individual syllables or phrases and also it really is typically utilized as a way of distinguishing between items for word level (such because minimal pairs, words that happen to be identical apart from one component). 4. 1 ) 1Tone Typologies There are two categories of strengthen, a. Level tones m. Contour tones 4. 1 ) 1 . 1 Level Tones The hues whereby the pitch is maintained exact same rate right through the syllable are called ‘level tones’ (Davenport and Hannahs 2005: 85). Level tones happen to be high, the middle of and low tones. These kinds of tones may occur in all syllables.
The excessive tone is indicated by simply an severe accent (/), the low strengthen is proclaimed with a quality accent () and the mid tone is represented because (-) or unmarked. Hence, the core tone is definitely not noticeable in Gunganchi. 4. 1 ) 1 . a couple of Contour Hues According to Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 85), contour tones are tones demonstrating pitch deviation during their creation. Contour colors consists of the falling tone (^) which is a tone starting high and end low, and the increasing tone (V) which starts off low and end large. Contour tones only appear on monosyllables and the final syllables of disyllabic words. 5. 1 . 2Tonal Pattern in Gunganchi Gunganchi is a tone language and it is a level strengthen language which attests for the high, low and middle tones. Every single syllable of Gunganchi language bears a tone.
Types of words that bears the high sculpt in Gunganchi are: [kwa]’take(one thing)’ [? watts? ]’sun’ [riba]’thing’ Event of low tones in Gunganchi dialect can be shown in the next examples: [dja]’here’ [riadda]’matchet’ Occurrences of the middle of tones in Gunganchi will be: [alahagw? mi]’jaw’ [wuru]’moon’ [ajaba]’plantain’ However , you will discover two or more words and phrases in Gunganchi language that have exactly the same consonants and vowels but have different meaning because of a difference in contrastive frequency. These are called tonemes that contrast minimally. For instance, [rotwua]’neck’HHH [rotwua]’belly(externall)HHM [kwubaloh]’cover(in hand)’HLH [kwubaloh]’close’HML Co-occurrence of tones in Gunganchi
In Gunganchi, the lower, high and mid shades co-occur. You will find the co-occurrence from the low and mid shades, examples will be, [ol? ha]’nose’ [t(ib? ]’town’ [hia(i]’dust’ Types of the co-occurrence of high, mid and low tones in Gunganchi will be: [hirokwa]’horse’ [ibulukw? ]’he goat’ [alakana(a]’four hundred’ 4. 2 . 1 Features of Tone in Gunganchi Tone functions two specific functions, they may be: a) Lexical function b) Grammatical function 4. 2 . 1 . one particular Lexical Function Tone may be used to differentiate lexical items that include identical portions. For example in Gunganchi, [kwubaloh]’cover (in hand)’HLH [kwubaloh]’close’HML [rotwua]’belly(external)HHM [rotwua]’neck’HHH
Note that the different tonemes have triggered the differences in the meaning of the words above. 4. installment payments on your 1 . two Grammatical Function Tone is also used to distinguish between diverse grammatical varieties. But , this kind of function is not found in Gunganchi terminology. 4. 3TONAL PROCESSES Much like segments, shades are also modified by their environment. Thus, this provides you with rise to tonal operations. 4. a few. 1 Sculpt Elision This kind of occurs when two tones are juxtaposed across morpheme boundary plus the final vowel of the initially word gets elided triggering the develop on it being elided as well. Examples in Gunganchi will be: [ikabia][uwapo]([ikabiuwapo]’house rent’ ‘money”house’ [itsuria][akatua](itsuriakatua] ‘buy”shoe”buy(a) shoe’ 4. 3. two Tone Stability
In relation to tone, the issue is that “…in tone languages, we find that when a vowel desyllabifies or is usually deleted by some phonological rules, the tone it absolutely was bearing does not disappear, alternatively, it adjustments its site and comes up on a few other vowel”. (Goldsmith1976: 30). Sort of tone stableness in Gunganchi: [ubula] [alokat(i] ( [ubulalokat(i] ‘rainy season’ ‘rain”time’ 5. 3. several Tone Distributing This is a tonal method whereby you will find more sectors than tone, the develop will then spread to the portion as it is a must that the portions bear tone. This process can be not found in Gunganchi terminology. 4. a few. 4 Floating Tone Oyebade (2008: 15) says that during derivation, segment can be specified pertaining to tone nevertheless merges with vowel, as a result, passing it is tonal requirements to that vowel. Gunganchi will not have suspended tone. 5. 3. 4 Tone Compression
This is when tone segmentalization makes two similar tones on a single syllable, the two identical colors are contracted to give just one. Gunganchi terminology does not attest to this tonal process. However , it is observed that there is the case of nasal consonant that bears develop. Such nose is referred to as a syllabic nasal because it is construed as a vowel that has a tone. Samples of this in Gunganchi will be: [nduwa]’person’ [nduwakabi]’old person’ In the words above, the nasal [n] holds the high tone rendering it to function the way other vowels functions. some. 4SYLLABLE FRAMEWORK The syllable is a supra-segmental unit. It could be easily known in a dialect.
Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 73) declares that: “One such articulatorily based attempt at the definition consists of the notion of your ‘chest pulse, or ‘initiator burst’, that may be, a physical contraction inside the chest (involving the lungs) which compares to the production of the syllable, every syllable, about this view, consists of one burst open of buff energy”. Williamson (1984) specifies the syllable as ‘the smallest device of terminology which can be obvious. It is a device of sound made up of a number of segments when there is a sole chest heart beat and an individual peak of sonority. Hyman (1975: 188) states that ‘a syllable is made up of an onset, and a key. And the key is further more divided into a peak and coda’. However , a syllable is split up into three parts: 1) The onset 2) The key or center 3) The coda The syllable can be represented as a result: Syllable OnsetCore
Peak (Nucleus)Coda C V(C) This can be illustrated in the model in Gunganchi below: [joh] ‘stand (up)’ ( OnsetCore ConsonantPeakCoda (Nucleus) JVowel(Consonant) ( h The syllable coda and onset are made up of consonant segments while the peak consist of vowel part and syllabic consonants. The height is a great obligatory area of the syllable, therefore, there must be a peak. The onset (beginning) and coda (end) which often consist of consonant(s) are optionally available parts of the syllable. Every syllable holds at least one significant unit of tone in tonal dialects. 4. 5. 1 Types of Syllable A syllable can be possibly an open syllable or sealed syllable.
It can be language specific, some different languages may exhibit either from the two syllable types although some languages make use of the two (open and shut syllables) just like Gunganchi vocabulary. 4. some. 1 . 1Open Syllable This is a syllable in which terms end in a vowel, it is a syllable with no coda. Examples in Gunganchi are: [ububa]’leaf’ [akahoj’village’ [babi]’children’ [hilelio]’elephant’ 4. 4. 1 . a couple of Closed Syllable Closed syllable is a syllable typology which has at least one consonant following the vowel or final the center. Examples will be: [lakapitwoh]’old(opp. new)’ [[kakaw]’pour’ [rimonoh]’work’ Gunganchi attests to both the available and sealed syllable. some. 5SYLLABLE FRAMEWORK RULE IN GUNGANCHI This can be a rule that states the possible sequence of sounds or section in a syllable.
Words fluctuate with regard to the number of syllables contained in them. Several words have just one syllable, others may well have several, hence, terms are grouped as being monosyllabic, disyllabic, trisyllabic and polysyllabic depending on just how many syllable(s) such words and phrases have. The syllable structures in Gunganchi are: CV VCV N- Syllable Composition Cw- Syllable Structure Cj- Syllable Framework 4. five. 1 CV-Syllable Structure The CV-syllable structure is the most prevalent type of syllable structure in Gunganchi. It can be mostly present in monosyllabic and disyllabic or trisyllabic and polysyllabic. 4. 5. 1 . 1 CV-Structure in Monosyllabic Monosyllabic can be described as word creating a single syllable.
For instance, in Gunganchi: [dja]’here’ 4. five. 1 . two CV-Structure in Disyllabic Disyllabic is a word consisting of two syllables. One example is: [nana]’come’ [riba]’thing’ [riwo]’corpse’ [hino]’bee’ 4. your five. 1 . several CV-Structure in Trisyllabic A word consisting of three syllables is called ‘trisyllabic’. Instances of such phrases in Gunganchi language are: [rihama]’food’ [rirogwo]’cassava’ [rigwula]’knife’ [hi(aho]’hawk’ 4. your five. 1 . 4 CV-Structure in Polysyllabic Polysyllabic is a phrase consisting of a lot more than three syllables. Examples in Gunganchi language are: [ribulukwu]’cooking’ [hamatsaro]’maize’ [[rit(at(? pua]’chin’ [ri(iteitwo]’hat/cap’ some. 5. 2 VCV-Syllable Composition
Examples of VCV-syllable structure in Gunganchi terminology are illustrated below: [uwi]’die’ [ut(a]’guest(stranger)’ [ubi]’child’ [ut? ]’father’ 4. 5. 3 N-Syllable Structure This sort of syllable is known as a ‘syllabic-nasal’. It can be interpreted as a vowel mainly because like a vowel, the syllabic nasal provides at sculpt. In Gunganchi, examples will be: [nduwa]’person’ [nduwakabi]’old person’ [ndukami]’man’ 4. your five. 4 Cw-Syllable Structure The [CwV] framework in Gunganchi includes the following: [hitsokwutso]’guinea fowl’ [ukwulu]’room’ [mutwo]’ashes’ 4. your five. 5 Cj-Syllable Structure Cases in Gunganchi language will be: [inagji]’pull’ [(ikjitwo]’learn’ [gjirana]’descend’ PHASE FIVE
OVERVIEW, FINDINGS/OBSERVATIONS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION 5. 0SUMMARY This study has analyzed the phonological aspects of Gunganchi language. Words and phrases are said to be well-patterned plus the principles of well-formedness happen to be followed. The strategy used for your data collection from this research work is the direct translation method via English dialect to Gunganchi language depending on the Ibadan 400 word-list. There was a direct interview while using informant, as a result, data elicitation was accomplished. The fact of using the illuminating data is to be in a position to make linguistically significant generalizations. This job work is usually divided into five chapters.
Section one is the introductory portion which managed the general background of Gunganchi people, their sociocultural account, genetic classification of the vocabulary, the opportunity and firm of research, review of the chosen assumptive framework, data collection and data examination. Chapter a pair of this function examined the basic phonological principles. The sound products on hand which involves the tonal products on hand and syllable inventory of Gunganchi dialect was discussed, also, their very own sound droit whereby the distinctive features was evaluated. The third part then discussed phonology alone, thus, analyzed the phonological processes in Gunganchi dialect. Meanwhile, the phonological operations found in Gunganchi language will be: assimilation, nasalisation, labialisation, palatalisation, insertion and vowel elision. However , the phonological rules were also made up.
Chapter 4 of this function discussed the tonal and syllable processes. These techniques were well examined with illuminating examples from Gunganchi language. Finally, chapter five summarized the work. It also manufactured observations, suggestions and summary. 5. 1FINDING/OBSERVATIONS Majority of Gunganchi speakers also speak Hausa language in fact it is observed that some phrases in Gunganchi are lent from Hausa language. Gunganchi language attests to both equally open syllable structure and closed syllable structure. Also, when some words in Gunganchi occur across morpheme boundary, the very last vowel with the first expression gets removed. There is the circumstance of consonant cluster in Gunganchi language which is another observation.
It absolutely was also noticed that Gunganchi attest to the amount tones (high, mid, low) and these tones co-occur in words. Finally, there are a few words in Gunganchi that differs as a result of tone which is tonemic contrast. 5. 2RECOMMENDATIONS Through this research, valuable insight has been drawn from the phonological facets of Gunganchi vocabulary. As a matter of fact, the language has not been confronted with thorough linguistic scrutiny. There is need for language specialists to focus their very own attention more on the vocabulary. This job has studied the facets of the phonology of Gunganchi language. I actually hereby suggest that linguists ought to shed more light on this aspect and also other aspects of Gunganchi language. Researchers who would like to study further in
Gunganchi will see this study a reliable guide. 5. 3CONCLUSION Some areas of the phonology of Gunganchi language have already been surveyed. For want of space and time, it includes not recently been possible to deal with all facets of the language. Nevertheless , I hope this study can inspire further research inside the language. REFERENCES Carlos, G. and Haike, J. (2005). “Understanding Phonology” (2nd Edition). Great Britain: Hodder Arnold. Goldsmith, J. (1976). Autosegmental Phonology. MIT DIssertion IVLC, Ny: Grandland Press. Hyman, M. M. (1975). “Phonology: Theory and Evaluation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Katamba, F. (1989). “An Summary of Phonology”.
New York: Longman Incorporation. Langacker, L. W. (1972). “Fundamentals of Linguistic Analysis”. New York: Harcourt Brace, Javanovich Inc. Mike, D. and Hannahs, H. J. (2005). “Introducing Phonetics and Phonology” (2nd Edition). India: Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. Oyebade (2008). “A Course in Phonology” (2nd Edition). Ijebu-Ode: Shebiotimo Press. Oxford (2006). “Advanced Learners Dictionary” (7TH Edition). Oxford. Oxford University Press. Pike, K. T. (1943). Phonetic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Pike, K. L. (1948). Tone Different languages. Ann Arbor: Michigan College or university Press. Welmers, W. Electronic. (1973). African Language Constructions. Los Angeles: University or college of Cal Press.