A Tentative Study of Trademark Translation Essay

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Summary: Trademark is a special sort of language symptoms. It is the attention of commodities’ distinct characteristics, the main of commodities’ culture, and the powerful tool for a great enterprise to participate in international competitions. With the development of the positive effect and the embrace international transact, the products of importing and exporting strengthen day by day; the translation of trademarks is gaining a growing number of attention.

Today, more and more people have realized that a great translation of your trademark to promote sales is crucial to the progress international market segments and earnings making. Relating to some cases of trademark translation, this thesis summarizes some main features of hallmark, and talks about the principles and some general ways of trademark translation. Key words: Hallmark; characteristics; translation principles; translation methods?:???,???,???,??????????,???,??????,???,???,????????????,???,???????:?;?;?;?

Advantages According to R. Heis, an American economist: “A manufacturer, i. electronic. trademark is known as a name, contact form, sign, design and style or a mixture of them that tells whom makes it or perhaps who sells it, distinguishing that merchandise from those made or sold by others. ” (Guo Guilong & Zhang Hongbo, 08: 100) A trademark will be a product’s name, which is the representative of the image of a company and the symbol of quality. To promote sales, the trademark performs a very important function in stimulating consumer’s wish to shop, using the huge monetary benefits and even in determining the survival of a company.

With China’s signing up for to the WTO, China strengthens cooperation with other countries, which include increasingly recurrent economic and trade exchanges. How to bring in our goods to international countries, bring foreign goods into the domestic markets and conduct a prosperous sales organization has become quite important. Therefore , a successful translation of trademark becomes important and essential for the businesses.

While trademark translation isn’t only a simple transformation from one code to another, but a clear purpose of the cross-language commercial, a unique cross-cultural communication activity. Hence, it is vital for us to pay much more attention to the principles and strategies of trademark translation. Chapter1 The functions of Brand Though there are many definitions of trademark, they will share some thing in common. In general, a brand should be easy and simple to remember, and really should be unique and beneficially associative. 1 ) 1 Quick and simple to Remember It is a basic requirement for a trademark to be quick and easy to spell.

Choosing brief and simple words for crafting trademarks can help consumers comprehend them easier, because simple and short phrases are easy to keep in memory. Nowadays, with the quickly development of economy, more and more trademarks flood in the market, how do consumers memorize all of them? Consequently , if a hallmark is brief and easy to spell and memorize, it might occupy the market quickly. In fact , most popular trademarks happen to be in short contact form, such as Nike, Sony, Apple and so on.

1 . 2 Unique from Comparable Products We all know that the purpose of using art logos is to identify one merchandise from others. Therefore , being distinctive is yet another important characteristic of a hallmark. Trademarks, in a way, are equal to signs and reputations.

Distinctiveness can help clients not to be easily confused with additional trademarks in the market either by sound or perhaps appearance. Exclusive and common words could be used to distinguish the kind of product from others. “Kodak” (camera) created by the supervisor, is unique and easy pertaining to the potential customers to memorize. The China famous brand “Lenovo”(? ), can easily be differentiated from other personal computers, because “Lenovo”, a gave word, could be associated with the phrase “legend” which can be particular and attractive.

Lenovo is more ground breaking than tale. Adventurous customers will choose that brand distinguishes the kind of product from the other computers with consummate ease. 1 . 3 Arousing Beneficial Association Many trademarks can easily arouse advantageous association, which is an indispensable feature of hallmark.

Owing to the advantages of marketing, a trademark isn’t only a sign, but also an advertisement. It may arouse the good association and have absolutely the good top quality to buyers. Some logos have natural meaning and a few have historic or cultural connotations, both these styles which can arouse favorable associations. “LUX” (soap) is a merchandise of Unilever Company. “LUX”, a Latina word, means “sunshine”. Therefore the consumer can associate it with “bright sunshine and healthy skin”.

This trademark even let people imagine the romantic sense on the summer time beach. What’s more, buyers can relate “LUX” with “lucks” and “luxury” from the appearance and pronunciation. As a result, Unilever Organization publicizes the favorable quality of its products by favorable connection of the hallmark. From the above model, we can see the inherent meaning of trademarks plays a significant part in advertising and can arouse people’s desirable affiliation and let all of them accept these products.

Chapter 2 The Principles of Trademark Translation Trademark translation is a form of art as well as a technology. It is a complete process which is related to linguistics, translation theory, intercultural connection, aesthetics, and consumer mindset. Generally speaking, trademark translation can be described as complex activity of compromising between the symbolism of art logos and their customers. Therefore , to translate trademarks successfully, some principles should be taken into consideration. 2 . 1 Reveal the Products’ Characteristics Usually, every item has its identification.

Brand translation ought to show the features and functions of the products, so that the customers could quickly think of using products when they see the logos. As has become discussed by Xu Hui and Cheng Zhendong, the characteristic of any product ensures that it has some fundamental elements which differ from those of others (Xu Hui, 2004: 55-56). The translated brand should match with the characteristics of products and show the concept of the original name. The characteristics of goods not only identify from others, but as well contain the capability to communicate with the consumers.

As a result, in the process of translation, the translator should grasp the qualities of the goods, so as to promote the knowledge of products intended for consumers, that help learn the attributes and features of the items by the initial sight. For instance , a trademark of suit-dress “Hope Show” is translated into “? “, when the word “? ” immediately reflects inside the products to get the clothing category, and “? ” add even more promotion of your happy and peaceful feeling to the products. The translation not only demonstrates the features with the product nevertheless also caters to consumers’ visual taste.

No one will have affinity for products that they are not familiarised. A successful trademark translation should have the feature that buyers can understand category and characteristics of the product. Just like “Nike”, the popular American model of sports wears, is the name in the goddess Success in Ancient greek myth. In accordance to it is pronunciation, it could be translated in to “? ” or “? ” in Chinese.

However , these two titles can’t uncover the characteristics of the product, nevertheless even provide people a misunderstanding that “Nike” can be some items for women. “? ” is much better. “? ” means some thing durable. Since the sport wear, durability can be equal to good quality. “? ” implies that persons can finally overcome troubles and do well, conforming with the connotation of Victory. Those two words in Chinese demonstrate features of the item perfectly. One more example is definitely Procter & Gamble’s antidandruff shampoo “Head & Shoulders”. The translation “? ” means dandruff disappears the moment washed, and highlights the distinct attributes of the merchandise fully.

One more two cases are “Sportsman” (bicycle) and “Unlsports” (sports shoes). The former is converted into “? “, the latter into “? “. Should you be not familiar with the trademarks, who will associate this with their items? 2 . 2 Choose the Ideal Words Because the sign of products, logos should be simple and easy to remember and understandable to get consumers. So in order to leave the best impression on consumers, translators should certainly choose several appropriate words during the process of trademark translation. The more difficult words inside the translation, the weaker the trademark sounds and the less memorable it might be.

For instance, McDonald’s was transliterated into “? ” in mainland of China before and now can be displaced by “? “. Also, in mainland, the brand name name “Hewlett & Packard” had a extended translation of “? -? ” for a long period. Now, the six-character edition, long and meaningless, has been replaced by two-character type “? “. Balancing those two versions, we can see the latter is a lot easier to pronounce and memorize. Moreover, “? ” consists of more symbolism and can induce more favorable electronic favorable relationship of the the productassociation of shoppers.

Similarly, “Head &Shoulder”(shampoo) was transliterated in to “?? ” before and after this a more small and important version “? ” can be popular. “Stafanel”, the brand brand for apparel from ALL OF US, is converted into “? ” right now. However , how about a two-character version “? “? As well in China, “Mercedes-Benz”, the manufacturer name for any quality car from Australia, was transliterated into “? ·? ” before but is placed into “? ” at present. A vehicle from England “Rolls Royce” is translated into “? ” now instead of the previous transliteration “? ·? “. The Chinese language version to get “Fair Child”, a fan from the ALL OF US, was “?? ” before and now is “?  ” instead. “? ” is a lot easier to be evident and memorized than “? ” for “Nescafe” by Swiss.

The top new editions have changed the old renderings because they are easy and simple to be approved by consumers, in pronunciation, form and meaning. Convenient acceptance by consumers finally promotes the sales with the products. On the contrary, some goedkoop sound profane or can lead to negative organizations in the Chinese language.

Thus these kinds of translations may not be known and acknowledged by consumers. For cases, “Psorales”, a drug, was put into “? ” when just entering China. No one knew what “? ” was and assumed that to be some thing discarded. Not necessarily hard to imagine nobody might buy items that sound worn and useless.

After, it is changed by “? “, a much more vivid and meaningful version, and its sales was improved afterwards. installment payments on your 3 Assess the Appearances Features Trademark translation will need to comply with the functions of morphology of trademark in the TL. “Getting the very best out of the combination of beauty in meaning, sound and form may be the internal necessity if we want to realize the connected function plus the advertising function of a manufacturer name”. (Tang Zhongshun, 2002: 75-77) The translated brand accordingly must be normative, beautiful, vivid and visual. First of all, “beauty of meaning” means the translated terms will need to produce a great artistic conception through a beneficial association of words or component words and phrases so that persons will have abundant and good association and arouse the expectation and pursuit of fantastic things.

We certainly have the typical types of “Sprite” (beverage) and “Tide” (washing power). Since “Sprite” was converted into “? ” in Chinese, the product has won in China and tiawan due to the brilliant color and abundant meaning. The converted term “? ” in sound isn’t just quite close to the pronunciation with the original name brand, but also makes people have a favorable connection of lustration, neatness and tidiness, exhibiting the sort and show of the merchandise.

Secondly, “beauty of sound” means a brandname name with the original and its translated type should basically share the same or similar pronunciation with all the quality of sonority, rhythmization and musicality so that a great aesthetically pleasing entertainment is obtained in ability to hear that brand name (Zhang Quan, 2004: 77-79). There are many effectively translated variations fully indicate the beauty of sounds. Take “OMO” (washing power) and “Clean&Clear” (facial cleanser) for example. Since “OMO” can be translated in “? “, it sounds just like a compliment “great” in English. The converted term of “Clean&Clear”, “? ” makes good utilization of alliterative stroking reduplication in order to achieve a mix of phonetic beat and verve.

Lastly, “beauty of form” means the translated trademarks should make the best of conciseness and simpleness in structure, namely using handful of syllables, readability and understandability of the words and keeping away from difficult and seldom-using words. People like two or three phrases of translated versions because this structure better accords with all the referential customized and artistic psychology. There are numerous famous converted brand names with all the above feature, such as “Head&Shoulders” (shampoo), “Avon” (cosmetic), “Johnsons” (cream) and so forth. Especially the converted version “? ” is full of the characteristics of concision, elegance and vividness representing the feature and function of the product.

2 . four Pay Attention to Social Differences Edward cullen Taylor described culture since “a complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits obtained by individuals as associates of a contemporary society. ” (Taylor Edward N, 1871: 36) Namely, the major factors leading to the making of culture are the made use of, habits, customs and background, which fluctuate considerable coming from countries to countries. As a carrier of culture, terminology is an important component to culture which will reflects you will of a land, which not simply includes the nation’s traditional and ethnical background, nevertheless also provides the national outlook on life, lifestyles and ways of pondering.

From the romantic relationship between language and lifestyle, it is apparent that translation is not only a process of moving the source vocabulary into the focus on language, yet also a procedure for a mutual communication and exchange between different cultures. Therefore , during the process of hallmark translation, as language and culture happen to be inseparable via each other, you have to pay more focus on cultural variations. 2 . some. 1 . Variations in Religions Made use of, myths, legends, and images via literary works are an in-separable part of lifestyle. They are deeply rooted in culture and at the same time contribute a good deal to the development of people’s concepts about certain things.

These elements, when ever involved in brand name translation, require the translator’s sensitivity and also flexibility in cultural version in order that functional equivalence could possibly be attained between your source manufacturer and the focus on brand name. For instance , Goldlion was not well-liked in order to first appeared inside the Chinese marketplace with the name”? “. It is known that many people would not purchase that item just because the name sounds very close to”? “in some Chinese dialects. Other people believe that the name was not very well accepted as it resembles the sound of”? “, which is also a taboo thought in Chinese suppliers, especially in Hong Kong, where persons display a specific liking to get things with luck-bearing names.

Anyway, the product did not sell off well before the new name”? “was followed by Zeng Xianzi, a famous China entrepreneur. This individual skillfully required apart the original source brand name into”gold”and”lion”. The first part was literally put into”? “to be dedicated to the original, while the latter adopted the method of semantic transliteration and was set into”? “, meaning”bringing profit”. Such an auspicious name provides helped a whole lot in building up the good celebrity of the merchandise.

2 . 5. 2 Differences in History. Just about every country has its own history. In the history, various historical incidents happened. These types of incidents have got carved in the culture and still have become a a part of it. Being unaware of the history when translating a brand will bring about failure. “Opium” is a brand of perfume.

Actually in the american cul ention to hich reflects nd nice associationame, but as well makes ation. things. he producr. ture, such kind of trademark identity is popular, such as Toxic, another perfume brand. However in China, “? ” has a negative meaning. The China people experienced the shameful history linked to opium as 1840, if the notorious Opium War out of cash out. With no consideration of history, this brand found the amount of resistance from the Oriental consumers. Finally, the hallmark name “? ” was banned in China.

2 . 4. three or more Differences in Customs and Behaviors Custom is among the branches of culture reflecting the specific features of a land or elements of the nation. It is the sediment of long background closely related to the surroundings plus the way of life. Thus some persuits and patterns exist in a single culture yet may be lack of in another, which in turn brings about a great obstacle to Chinese-English brand translation. Various Chinese brands come from Oriental custom. One of the most famous grain wines known as “? ” (Daughter Wine) is manufactured in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province of China.

To Chinese clients, the brand brand represents the happy events in one’s life, while they cannot arouse the same feeling in westerners if converted literally which will absolutely cause cultural loss, because the western consumers are not aware of about the custom with the ancient Shaoxing. It is said that in historical Shaoxing a jar of this wine was buried under the ground if a daughter was brought into the earth. When the girl grew up to become a bride, the jar was dug out and presented to the guests attending the wedding.

As the wine was uncapped, the smell of the wine spread considerably, and all guests became fired up and congratulated the parents, so that it was called “? “. When a translator translate the trade indicate, it is very essential to reveal the cultural info of the brand titles. It is not just easy for customers to know about the origin in the wine nevertheless accept that quickly, since any one by any region would like to equally appreciate the gorgeous things, enjoy the happy feeling and desire success. Thus, in order to uncover the cultural information on this brand name, perhaps the translation “Daughter’s Wedding Wine” is more appropriate. 2 . four.

4 Differences in the Thinking towards Family pets and Figures People residing in different civilizations hold several attitudes and beliefs toward animals and numbers. What is considered a fantastic omen in one culture might not exactly symbolize similar in another. Consequently , it is generally advisable that folks should not employ this type of words and phrases to name the relative items, and when 1 translates existing brand names with this type, ethnical adaptation might help him find a more right target brand. The difficulties caused by such words in brand translation can be illustrated with the following case in point.

As we know, the Chinese persons often affiliate bats with good luck as the Chinese character “? “sounds the same as”? “(meaning”good fortune”). Some China legends also say that when a bat lives 100 years, this turns white colored in color and weighs upside down coming from a tree, and consuming that baseball bat could provide a person longevity. A red softball bat foretells better yet luck for”? “sounds precisely the same with”? “(being supremely fortunate).

Some China stick to the opinion so much that they name all their products”? “. But if the translator adapts his linguistic alternatives to the diverse attitude towards the animal in European civilizations, he would not really consider” Bat” a good term, for such as the is regarded as an extremely evil omen in many Western folklores. Maybe translations like “Fortunes” can be better. Besides, numbers cause different interactions. Generally speaking, every single culture provides certain numbers believed to be possibly “lucky” or perhaps “ominous”, but this may often differ from individual to individual.

Let’s take those translation of “7-up”, a brand of softdrink, as an example. The number “7” is usually thought to be a lucky quantity to many English speakers, but it really does not have the same meaning in Chinese. Thinking about the cultural big difference, the translator, in order to make a similar effect among the China consumers, worked out the name”? “. The name is very satisfactory mainly because its initial part”? “remains faithful to the source brand name without offerring any unfavorable meaning, and its particular second part”? “conveys this is of”happiness and good luck”, and hence negates the loss of significance in the number”7″.

Chapter three or more General Methods in Brand Translation Peter Newmark once said that distinct translation strategies should be adopted according to the different functions of different works (Mou Yan, 2008). It is well-known that trademark translation isn’t just to convey the cultural data of the supply culture, nevertheless also to create a good graphic in the goal culture, and lastly to attract the individuals in the marketplace to the item. In order to attain these reasons, translators should certainly adopt this methods in the process of trademark translation.

3. 1 Textual Translation Exacto translation, called semantic translation by Peter Newmark, is a way of translation which is aimed at preserving one of the most possible cultural messages (including the expansive aspect of traditions, such as, the formal components of the SL) of the source text with the sacrifice with the formal elements of the target language and sometimes even the intelligibility of the target text (Zheng Shengtao, 1994). Because the formation of words inside the Chinese language differs from that in the Western languages, it is actually unachievable trademark translation by word-for-word translation typically. Peter Newmark favors “literal translation” too.

He says, “I am to some extent of a ‘literalist’ because I actually am intended for truth and accuracy”. (Newmark Peter, 2001: 62) Even though sometimes textual translation may create anything exotic or even eccentric for the target vocabulary readers, it can gradually become accepted by target terminology and its traditions. As long as the translated brands from language can be recognized and accepted by the goal consumers, exacto translation is the foremost way for promoting cultural exchange through the brand translation in China. While the brand identity translation is always to transfer among cultures, interpraters should associated with target buyers understand the resource culture.

Many people say we have a better way for translators to approach the initial. That is textual translation, that may keep the countrywide feature. For example , some classic brand names, which can be very familiar to the Americans even to the world just like “? ” (The Yangtze River), “? ” (the Yellow River), and “? ” (the Great Wall) are chosen by the producers, as they are the symbols of Chinese great natural record. When interpraters translate them, they have no requirement to do any translation. As these brand names are famous to the universe, and these Chinese qualities of brand labels are refreshing and secret to the Westerners, it is easy to stir up the target consumers’ purchasing desire.

Translators can easily adopt literal translation. The rand name names “? “, “? “, “? ” take our historic cultural data. When interpraters translate all of them into the American languages, they have to keep textual translation and add some records, in order to area target customers know the supply culture.

Literal translation also keeps the general form and keeps the structure with the source terminology. Today, Oriental culture are receiving more and more popular in the world, and even more and more Americans are wanting to study our language in order to learn the long background. Therefore , the sort of translation is a necessary way to let even more people learn our classic culture.

On the other hand, in the English-speaking countries, there are some brand names which is often literally translated. For example , the particular famous brand term “White cat” is translated into “? “. As well as the brand name “Camel” is converted into “? “. Each one of these translated manufacturers are very ideal for the products, and the products can very probably be loved by the consumers in the target market. Here literal translation is different then word-for-word translation. Word-for-word translation is to rigidly reproduce every word in the process of translation. Strictly speaking, it is far from a translation method.

But , literal translation is a skill of translation, even if right now there do exist a few additions or deletions as the essence of the original is definitely not demolished. Literal translation makes the target language even more smooth and acceptable. Though literal translation can most possibly conserve the cultural text messages of the source language, this sometimes will cause misunderstanding from the cultural messages or produce unintelligible symbolism.

Let’s have Sprite as an example. If the phrase “Sprite” is definitely translated virtually or straight, it might be “? “. The version would put China consumers in great distress because “? ” is actually a human-like list in Chinese culture. As a result translators should think about other methods. Literal translation is used as the most great translation strategy in reproducing images since it can maintain the original images as much as possible. Some English expressions wearing word-for-word similarity to a few Chinese movement may mean something quite different.

In this case, translators should go deeper to find out what these English language expressions genuinely mean; or else mistakes will probably be made in literal translation. three or more. 2 Transliteration Transliteration within a narrow perception is a mapping from one system of writing in another and it is mostly based on the pronunciation. Transliteration attempts to be lossless, so that the best reader must be able to reconstruct the original spelling of unknown transliterated words.

To accomplish this objective, transliteration may define complex events to deal with characters in a resource script which often not overlap with words in a target script. Transliteration means that trademarks are translated into similar names in pronunciation based on the original types (Li Yi, 2009: 232-234) It is generally believed the fact that adoption of this method can help to achieve numerous purposes. Some trademarks acquired in this way may effectively help remind the customers of their classic status. Such logos are easier to get target customers to enunciate and remember.

Still, several trademarks happen to be deliberately transliterated in order to focus on the foreign consumers’ general inclination for international goods since some thus-translated trademarks audio more foreign-like. The world renowned trademark “Intel” means: the ability to learn and reason as well as the capacity for knowledge and understanding. Now you understand why it is translated into “? ” which sounds foreign-like and is simple to memorize and read.

In the mean time, it indicates the characteristic of the product. One more example is a translation of “Ya Ya”. “? ” (down wear) is transliterated into “Ya Ya” rather than “Duck”. The translated hallmark “Ya Ya” is a appealing name that can fulfill the simulating function of trademark properly.

These two good examples show the characteristics of being quick and easy to pronounce and remember and as well follow the basic principle of aesthetics. Though transliteration embodies requirements beauty of the original one particular, the converted trademark dictions should be picked carefully. During transliteration, it is vital to follow the characteristics of arousing appealing association. “Philip” was once converted into “? ” which sounds more similar to the first one than “? “. But the three characters “? ” is going to arouse undesirable association. People prefer good and suitable words, and so, when using transliteration method, translators should do their utmost to choose beautiful words.

For example , “Lancome” (cosmetics) is put in “? “. The two Chinese characters are fabulous and can be associated with an elegant woman with selected spiritual qualities. These two words and phrases “? ” are always linked to beautiful issues, such as “?,? “. That’s why Oriental females include a partiality for “Lancome”. In translation practice, we discover that English trademarks are quite coherent in letters or words and is pronounced very easily in one breathing, while the transliteration of Chinese language trademarks will be broken in to independent terms in accordance with the particular Chinese characters.

So the British version frequently lacks accordance. To avoid drawback of transliteration in rigid accordance with the standard China pronunciation, we could use transliteration method flexibly. To some extent, we are able to translate a trademark in line with the local pronunciation.

The following cases successfully avoid the above problem. “? ” (refrigerator) is usually translated into “Frestech” instead of “Xin Fei”. “Frestech” consists of “fresh” and “technology”, which can be coherent in structure and pronunciation. What’s more, additionally, it implies that the item is created with advanced technology. “? ” (tonic food) means that happiness is approaching, suggesting the product will bring joy and overall health to buyers. The English version “Life” caters to westerners’ psychology and it is easier so they can pronounce and spell.

3. 3 Totally free Translation “Free translation expands the matter with no manner, or perhaps the content without the form of the initial. Usually this can be a paraphrase for a longer time than the original. ” To be able to take advantage of the concentrate on language and make translated brand name even more idiomatic and acceptable, a few imaginary manufacturers are readily translated. Free translation may communicate the information of products clearly and strongly. It will produce a strong impression on the target language buyers and excite their response. There are many powerful examples to show this method.

For instance , “Ariel” (washing powder) can be rendered since “? “. The word “? ” means “clean” and “clear”. Therefore “? ” indicates the super cleaning capability of the washing powder. Similarity, “Safeguard” (soap) is definitely not practically translated into “? “, but “? “. The translation details the product’s function and attributes. “Rejoice” (shampoo) is definitely not converted into “? “, nevertheless “? “, meaning gentleness and glossiness. “Slek”(shampoo) is also rendered while “? ” through free translation. “? ” in Chinese could be a noun in addition to a verb term.

If “? ” is definitely interpreted being a noun, it indicates beautiful pals, implying women will be like an elegant bud after making use of the shampoo; if “? ” is construed as a verb, it means adding nourishment to a bud to make it come out. It indicates the shampoo or conditioner can make hair glossier. “Zest”(soap) is paraphrased as “? ” through free translation. “? ” is a very well-liked word in China, which usually brings the soap a fashionable element. This translation has been enhanced from the initial one “? ” in literal method. “? ” is more correct and ideal to meet the needs of the youth whom are the target customers. a few.

4 Liberal Translation as well as Transliteration To be able to reach conditions of trademark translation—beauty in meaning and sound, and to make the translated versions have the general features of good brands, we can utilize combination of generous translation and transliteration to translate manufacturers, since on many occasions liberal or perhaps transliteration cannot do the job along. A good translation of a brand should not be similar to the original sound yet also indicate the meaning of the initial. The mix of liberal translation and transliteration may accomplish double purposes, as the message of the trademark name will be more vividly shown so that it is often more impressive to guide consumption.

Here we take some examples to appreciate the merits of this kind of technique. For example , “Pampers”—diapers from P&G, is full of meaning and clear in pronunciation. The translated brand “? ” has got a equilibrium between the which means and the pronunciation.

The brand identity of a medicine “Bufferin” is translated into “? “. The translated brand name will not tell us the particular medicine is, but it forms a sound which is close to that from the source brand. A drink called “Milo” is definitely translated in “? “, which not merely makes all of us know that the pronunciation with the translated expression is near that of the original, but lets us know what the product is made from and the property in the product.

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