Chrysalis counselling dissertation essay

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“Describe and evaluate Carl Jung’s theory concerning character types and have absolutely how they may usefully support a therapist to determine therapeutic goals”.

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For the purpose of this composition I will make an effort to show a comprehension of Carl Jung’s theory of character types, examine his theory and show how a theory might help a therapist to determine restorative goals.

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was developed in Kesswil, Thurgau in Switzerland, and studied Psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric therapy and deductive psychology in the University of Basel.

Jung’s influences had been; Eugen Bleuler (19th hundred years Swiss psychiatrist), Sigmund Freud (19th century psychologist), Friedrich Nietzsche (German philologist, thinker, cultural critic, poet and composer), and Arthur Schopenhauer (18th 100 years German philosopher).

Jung wedded Emma Rauschenbach who was the daughter of your wealthy Swiss family; Emma was also a psychotherapist and author in her personal right. Jung had a great relationship along with his father nevertheless Jung’s mother suffered with rounds of depression and was known as extremely eccentric.

Jung might often use his mom’s issues since reasons for his own troubles in life.

Jung was the president of synthetic psychology and developed the concepts of extroversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious. Jung’s work has become extremely influential within a large number of fields which include; psychiatry, analyze of religion, beliefs, archaeology, anthropology, and literary works, Jung was also a productive published copy writer. Jung was very religious by nature, great work was based surrounding this religiousness, this individual also placed a fascination with philosophy plus the occult. Due to Jung’s odd and uncommon beliefs, various considered him to be a little mystic. Jung’s desire was going to be seen as being a “man of science”, his influence on popular psychology, the “psychologization of religion”, “spirituality” and the “new age motion has been enormous. “

Carl Jung was one of the wonderful personality theorists who was well guided by and took inspiration from historical models such as astrology. Study regarding personality have been going on pertaining to hundreds and perhaps thousands of years, and Hippocrates him self (c. 460-377/359 BC) researched others personas and nature.

Jung founded a new school of psychiatric therapy called synthetic psychology, called “Jungian Psychology”. Jung’s theories included the subsequent;

The concept of “introversion and extroversion”.

The concept of the “complex”.

The idea of the “collective unconscious”, this consists of the archetypes. “Synchronicity” like a mode of relationship which is not casual, an idea that has affected Wolfgang Pauli (with who he developed the notion of “unus mundus” in connection with the notion of non-locality) and other physicists.

P. Reeve; City College, Norwich

Jung stated that a person’s emotional make-up works on two primary levels, the conscious plus the unconscious. Jung believed which the conscious and unconscious proved helpful in such a way that well-balanced each other away. For instance when a person’s conscious side responds in a particular manner, the unconscious will certainly respond in a way as to stability things away. Jung believed that we are born using a natural and equal stability, and that if this harmony was modified by exterior experiences or happenings, your brain would work to restore the balance.

Jung saw consciousness being a product of rational and irrational systems of experiencing and assessing reality. Jung developed a framework of “four practical types, including two pieces of pairs. These were referred to by Jung as being those from which “most differentiated function plays the principal role in an individual’s variation or alignment to life. ” (From Mental Types, 1921). By “most differentiated” Jung meant outstanding or dominating. Jung’s 4 functions will be;



Jung stated these functions permit us to make the decision and to assess, or “rational”.



Jung stated the particular are the capabilities which allow us to collect information and perceive, or perhaps “Irrational”. Jung stated that every one of us must both understand and evaluate, in order to survive and keep on “normal operating behaviour. ” Jung mentioned that each people will prefer one function from each of the pairs.

Explanations of the 4 functional types are;


What something is.

Meaning and understanding.

Analytic, goal, principles, specifications, criteria.


Whether it be good or not.

Weight and value.

Subjective, personal, valuing closeness, humane.

Jung called these kinds of functions “rational”. The features are reverse, reasoning and judging functions. People knowingly prefer much more the other.


Something exists.

Sensual perception.

Realistic, pragmatic, practical, reasonable.


Where it’s from and where really going.

Possibilities and atmosphere.

P. Reeve; City School, Norwich

Hunches, future, speculative, fantasy, creative.

Jung known as these features “irrational”, and stated why these functions enable us to “gather information” and “perceive” Businessballs. com ( Jung’s personality types).

Jung mentioned that each person has a organic orientation to one of the several functions, which usually would be their very own “superior” or most “differentiated” function. In this case the opposite function, “inferior” or “unconscious” function would be represented and paid out within the individual’s unconscious. Jung stated that the personality might generally end up being represented by a conscious prominent function via each reverse pair: one of these dominant functions would be general dominant or perhaps “superior” and the other dominant function would be the supporting or “auxiliary” function.

The four functions; pondering, feeling, experience and intuition along with extraversion and introversion, make up Jung’s “eight types”, which can be eight mental Functions-in-Attitude attitude. These 8-10 mental functions in their particular attitude form the core of Jung’s “theory of psychological types”. They are the ten functions we all call upon to adapt to the earth. What this means is that a person might be defined by which in the eight they can be, for example;

Extraverted Feeling;

“Outward and active concentrate on bringing order to the objective world through

building and seeking harmony with others and positioning with freely expressed values. “

Introverted feeling;

“Inward and reflective concentrate on the subjective world of deeply felt beliefs, that tries harmony through alignment of private behaviour, with those principles and analysis of trends in light of these values.

Jung explains this kind of as being identified by our dominant function, or each of our most preferred mental function. If a person uses “Extraverted Sensing” more than any of the additional seven mental functions, this can be a more prominent function, which person would be defined as an “Extraverted Sensing Type”.

Jung’s theory from the eight features appears to work very well within just practice, however does consider considerable time to “get to grips” while using system, because there is very much information to familiarise your self with. This theory once understood may be applied to just about any situation or perhaps experience, and does seem to produce complete feeling.

Aelius Galenus, (c. 130AD-200AD), better referred to as “Galen of Permagon” was a renowned Greek physician, cosmetic surgeon and thinker in the Roman Empire. Galen created a theory about individuality, and around the second century ADVERTISEMENT, published “De Temperamentis” which outlined his theory. Galen was motivated by the performs of Hippocrates, and elaborated on his theory. Hippocrates identified the 4 fluids that lie on the base of Galen’s theory, which were: Bloodstream, yellow bile, black haine and phlegm.

Galen, unlike Hippocrates (who studied the four liquids for medical purposes as opposed to the study of human temperament) stated why these four essential fluids were accountable for differing moods, behaviours and emotions. Due to the time seeing that Galen’s theory was created, almost millennia, Galen’s theory have not withstood long use. (Galen’s Personality Theory-Psychology of Personality Period 6;

G. Reeve; Town College, Norwich personality-theory).

Another, more recent psychologist reputed for his fascination and work around character types and intelligence was Hans Eysenck (1916-1997). Eysenck was born in Berlin, Australia although started to be a British citizen, and went to “UCL” University or college College Birmingham. Eysenck put in most of his life learning and working in Britain, which has been very much resulting from his hate of Hitler and the Nazis. Eysenck hated everything they will stood intended for; he made a decision to leave his native country. Eysenck was the founding editor of the journal “Personality and Individual Differences” and published more than eighty books in addition to excess of 1600 journal content.

Eysenck’s model (P-E-N), was based on 3 personality measurements; Psychoticism, Extraversion and Neuroticism. Eysenck meant that in terms of sizes of temperament, these three dimensions are related to simple human emotions. In fundamental terms;

Psychoticism trait sama dengan a bipolar scale which can be anchored in the high end by aggressiveness and divergent pondering, and is at the low end intended for empathy and caution. Extraversion trait sama dengan Enjoy positive/social events, a bipolar range which is anchored at the high-end by sociability and excitement seeking, and at the low end by social reticence and stimulation avoidance. Neuroticism feature = a bipolar size anchored with the high end simply by emotional lack of stability and impulse, and by reflection and deliberateness at the low end.

Eysenck mentioned that “E and N” provided a 2-dimensional space to describe specific differences in conduct. An analogy can be made to how lat. and long, describe an area on the face with the earth. Eysenck acknowledged that these two proportions were much like the several personality types first suggested by “Galen”. For example;

Excessive N and High E = Choleric type

High N and Low E sama dengan Melancholic type

Low N and High At the = Sanguine type

Low And and Low E sama dengan Phlegmatic type

The major strength of Eysenck’s model is that it supplied data promoting a clear theoretical explanation of personality differences. Eysenck proposed that expansion was due to variability in cortical excitement levels, and introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extroverts and therefore are chronically more cortically turned on than extroverts. (

Even though Jung countless and was influenced by simply Freud, he had difficulties with the fact that all of Freud’s ideas and theories were deduced around sexuality. Freud saw Jung since his primary ally and supporter, nevertheless Jung shifted away from Freud in 1913 due to these kinds of difficulties.

Understanding Jung’s theory of individuality types can help a specialist to better figure out their customer’s self-image and self-worth. It is vital for the therapist to understand the client’s expectations of the therapy, to ensure that achievable desired goals may be established. Sensible, possible goals for the client can be a must, if the client should be to have an opportunity of succeeding in their therapy, achieving “wholeness” and potentially self-actualizing. S. Reeve; City College, Norwich

For a person to become “whole”, Jung regarded “Individuation, a psychological process of integrating the opposites like the conscious together with the unconscious, when still retaining their relative autonomy, necessary for a person to become entire. ” ( Jung’s character types).

Those who have advanced to individuation often be enlightening, mature and responsible, and also have a good knowledge of life, being human and the galaxy.

Jung thought that someone suffering “psychological disturbance” revealed a level of psychic discrepancy, for example , neurosis over-emphasizing the characteristic traits on a individual’s personality. When a person suffers a upsetting event at some point in their life, you will find likely to be challenging emotional issues. These traumas’ may have been consciously forgotten or placed inside the unconscious, but they are still likely to prove problematic for the individual, in the form of intricate emotional and/or behavioural difficulties. Jung explained that these problems could then be displayed as anxiety, major depression and other kinds of emotional and psychological challenges, leading to imbalance.

Jung believed that in order to redress this imbalance, every area of the mind must be researched so that the extremely point in the imbalance could possibly be identified. Jung’s theories carry out hold much weight in the world of psychology; even so there are areas where Jung tremendously differed from other personality theorist’s. Jung did not consider a customer’s emotional aspect towards a scenario. This issues with Eysenck’s theory, as he placed everybody on his level of “normal to neuroticism. ” Eysenck stated “neuroticism is a the case temperament that ought to be regarded when looking into individuality types. ” Jung thought that the part of the specialist was really relevant intended for the client to overcome their very own issues, this is why Jung was often accused of being also self-absorbed, employing his own personal experiences within many of his ideas and theories.


Understanding persona types certainly a important element of a specialist skill set. The relationship between the therapist and consumer is all essential, as your customer must truly feel safe, highly valued and paid attention to by the specialist. If the specialist did not consider the customer’s personality, the relationship would be unlikely to develop efficiently. The therapist must handle the client as an individual, based upon the client’s personality, “for example; Will the client seem more introverted or vibrant, does the customer seem to speak more rationally or psychologically, is the client more mindful or obsessive? ” (Counselling Philosophy; Function of the Counsellor;

Understand the customer’s personality and working with your customer based on this kind of personality, enables the client to feel comprehended, which will be very likely to result in the customer being more open and honest inside the therapy periods. This will as well help the specialist to determine suitable, realistic therapeutic goals.

I possess looked at and considered 3 “personality type” theorists, Jung, Eysenck and Galen, every from different periods throughout history. Though all share a common curiosity, they are all very different people, from different traditional periods, based on a personalities themselves. All three probably had distinct childhood and life experiences, which in itself potentially led to inconsistant ideas/theories inside the same interest and willpower. The idea that theorists for example can easily share one common interest or subject, which usually

P. Reeve; City College, Norwich

Result’s in various answers and outcomes, moves some way to exhibit the importance and relevance in the “personality”, plus the different outcomes as a result.

Ultimately, personality types are perhaps extremely relevant with regards to therapy and beneficial goals. The patterns in the impact of client’s persona, ego and self-etcetera, is going to affect these people in their everyday activities, social and personal relationships. If the therapist will not consider the consumer personality of the client, how can they probably build a relationship with their client, based on the core circumstances?

Understanding the patient’s personality will probably be extremely useful to the therapist, and will ensure that the therapist in assisting the consumer to achieve positive therapeutic effects, and to permit them to reach their restorative goals.

G. Reeve; Town College, Norwich


Course hand-outs/notes

Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SOUTH CAROLINA Page four Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2-3 01/2014 SC Web page 9 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. 2 – 3 01/2014 SC Page 14 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module a few. 2-3 01/2014 SC Site 14 Chrysalis Psychotherapeutic Counselling- Year 2-Module 3. two to three 01/2014 SC Page 15


Jung’s psychological types – the four functional types.


Galen’s Personality Theory – Psychology of Persona Period 6th. personality-theory).

Hans Eysenck.

Counselling Philosophy; Role in the Counsellor.

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