Effective Teaching and Learning Essay
Teaching is not just one way, offering information to students and expecting these to draw from the information!
A teacher (to be professional and effective) should also know all the different theories, designs and learning styles. Sneaking in models to allow best practice in each session and enable students to soak up valuable details. The guitar tutor is to think about each treatment, for example look at what gone well and what didn’t go as good. Differentiating between different learners abilities and learning variations. Teachers are constantly showing, not only in the event the students happen to be learning from the tutor but the tutor should be constantly learning best practice and not become stagnant!
Petty, G states It is not an admission of some weakness to seek tips and support; it is a way of measuring your energetic professionalism The author explores the several theories connected with teaching of learning and assessment, showing how she uses these people in her confidence and self esteem training course. The main ones that will be viewed in detail will be behaviourist, cognitivists and humanist, Transactional analysis and types of assessment. Androgogy and Pedagogy, Maslow’s hierarchy of requirements, the three primary ego states and Eventual and Boydell’s (1977) Obstacles to learning. There are three main advocates; behaviourist, cognitivists and humanist. Behaviourist theory was based on stimulus response from your dog.
To see and measure how it understands. Pavlov (1927) states that what may be measured is definitely classed as learning. Pavlov did an experiment with a puppy. This to my opinion is more like conditioning instead of learning.
Pavlov was mainly a physiologist and very thinking about how the head works. If a person was hungry they could be conditioned to salivate by the ring of a bell if they were conditioned to include food directly after. Hungry a person and getting this to do anything (ring a bell) to allow it to eat is a unusual way to analyse a human is learning! To treat human beings in this way and relate this to individuals is philistine, just go through the year it had been printed. This was also time when electric powered shock treatment and locking people in straight coats was acceptable!
Skinner (1938) also did some use animals and called that operant fitness. His results were the reward the animals had been working to not the stimulus electronic. g. not the bells but the foodstuff! Reward excellent and continues to be proven by simply theorists this keeps the students interested (although these results were examined on animals and humans). The prize could be learning new skills to modify and overcome a barrier, gain the qualification in confidence building. Getting a terry on the back again for good work handed in!
The students will certainly repeat behaviour if they are attaining a reward. The reward may also be the success of learning new skills for lifetime, as in the confidence training course. Skinner also believed that negative feedback was demoralising and stopped learners learning which the creator fully backs.
One has being very sensitive with opinions, especially when coping with students with low self confidence. Most of the learning is self reflective and a lot of self awareness exercises are executed, rather than criticising or not really passing a specific grade. The majority of learning is completed through conversation and personal reflection Piaget (1926) had a different view from Pavlov, he presumed that the folks thought process was more important and learning was developmental. Meaning they find out and add as to what they know or have learned.
It is about linking data Knowledge can be constructed even though interaction together with the environment. A cognitive method which requires new details, allowing the learner to evolve and transform all their existing understanding and apply this to new scenarios. (Armatage, 1999 Pg62) Around the confidence program a intellectual approach could be to ask the learners to spell out how you have got used the goal setting to attain a more content life? I am requesting the students to work on a deeper level, not just retaining the information nevertheless also demonstrating how to develop that into their personal life and past experiences.
The cognitivists and the behaviourist are more to do with controls and being tutor led, the Humanist theory looks more into the character of the novice and the learners’ actions that create the learning circumstance. The course is for autonomy, development and growth, the search for meaning and placing goals for themselves. This is very relevant in the goal setting tools stage with the confidence building course. When the students objective set for a happier, more healthy and more positive future. This can be looking at and building on the skills that learners already have through your life experiences.
The role in the tutor is always to encourage the scholars to echo and to increase the range of activities for the scholars to move upon with their specific goals which are not dictated by the tutor (myself) The two major writers in this field happen to be Rogers (1974) and Maslow (1968) Rogers viewed this as a group of drives to adulthood, autonomy, responsibility and self path. This is exactly about empowering your self rather than being taught what to do. Maslow looks at a complete hierarchy of needs (please see graph below) Maslow believes that you has to progress the pyramid of requires before they will self actualise.
For example one wants their basic needs to be met Biological and Physical needs air, food, drink, refuge, warmth, rest. This then moves on to think about safety and security. Protection needs protection from components, security, purchase, law, limitations, and balance. Belongingness and Love requirements function group, family, affection, associations. The scholars on the self-confidence course must continue as a group to support one another with upcoming goals as soon as the ten several weeks are up.
This is constantly on the have a good effect on the learners’ upcoming goals and encourages great relationships. Respect needs self-esteem, achievements, mastery, freedom, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility. This comes from the achievement of attending and finishing the course. Cognitive needs knowledge, meaning, making sense of points. Understanding for what reason they come to acquire low self-confidence and understanding there are many approaches to change this.
Self-Actualization needs realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. This definitely comes on the last program when the scholars feel so empowered to go on with goals which have been set. Producing a vision board that is certainly related to an individuals self modernisation. Up until 1970 teaching approaches were generally known as pedagogy which is Greek and means to lead a child Knowles who is a big figure in the humanist school challenged this kind of as he didn’t think it appropriate for adults. Knowles (1970 Pg 57) believes Once an adult the actual discovery that he can have responsibility pertaining to his individual learning, when he does intended for other areas of his lifestyle, he encounters a sense of launch and exhilaration.
He then enters into learning with a deep ego engagement, with effects that are often startling to both him self and the tutor Hanson (1996 pg 99) argued against a clear dichotomy between adult and required education. He believed that adults are generally not necessarily more experienced because they have lived longer! This can be true as some of the students I come across have no literacy skills which will be classed as a major intellectual barrier (see the five boundaries below) and come on the course which has a support staff member. This does not imply they don’t have articulate skills consist of areas, such as time supervision and people abilities. There is no point taking simply an androgogical approach until students find the ability to find out basic examine skills.
This leads on to the barriers that adult learners may face. Temporary and Boydell (1977) featured five boundaries to learning which were: perceptual, cultural, psychological, intellectual and expressive. Understanding could be a huge barrier that students deal with. Most that can come on the training course have had a poor school knowledge and this could be the last period they analyzed. Students are involved if they may feel comfortable inside the class, concerned if they don’t understand what the teacher is discussing, concerned in the event they understand someone in the class off their local area, and have absolutely concerns regarding feeling silly.
Perception is a huge barrier to overcome and nothing the tutor can perform if the learner does not begin the program. Cultural pressure could be family not seeking the spanish student to do programs to progress, especially when they see time has been taken from the family. Temporell and Bordell (1977) possess identified low self esteem like a barrier to learning.
This is difficult and there is many potential learners that phone approximately do the training course but then don’t have the self-confidence to walk through the door. When the student finds it difficult to express themselves, they can still study from the course by listening to group activity. It has been known on many courses when ever introducing another individual to the group the spanish student finds it better to talk, rather than introducing themselves they can speak for a much longer period of time about their colleague. This is certainly useful on this type of study course (self worth building) if this is not the first training course the student really does as a adult learner I actually am not sure how they will cope if they are moving onto more academic courses.
Beating personalities and ego says can also be classed as a enormous barrier, obtaining the student to the adult- mature ego express. They may have only had the expertise of critical kid ego condition. One of the learners commented prove childhood college memories, of standing in the corner and made to feel ridiculous because dyslexia wasn’t recognised then! The critical teacher (ego state critical parent).
Transactional analysis (D Childs, 2004) describes three ego declares Parent, Adult and kid. The mother or father ego point out falls in to two categories, critical father or mother and nurturing parent. The nurturing parents function is always to nurture themselves and others. Crucial parent function is to control the behaviour of themselves and others.
This can show as a critical tutor putting their students down and becoming condescending. The first class is definitely entered by most students in the adapted kid ego state, helpless and hurtful. Facial expressions searching scared and tearful.
Every students happen to be treated as adults which has a lot of growing parent inside the first treatment. This is to put the students relaxed and in a relaxed express with me the tutor and their colleagues. The landscape is set with each other writing boundaries as a group intended for the group to relationship, be comfortable, respected and well intentioned.
Once this is certainly done the students are aware that they are being respected. This is defeating the initially barrier to allow learning to occur. The author firmly believes that if a scholar is not really at ease they will not absorb important information. As well putting the students in the adult ego condition.
This arrangement is done in unison, with the pupils taking ownership of their actions and behaviour with others. This can be done through environment their own restrictions. The last group agreed to switch off mobiles, only allow great gossip, not any dumping (talking about personal problems), have fun, respect upon another, what’s said within the room stays in the room, listen if perhaps someone can be talking, certainly not hog the conversation (give everyone time to talk), never to give thoughts unless they can be asked for, support one another, simply no swearing. This may be a Eureka moment as some students may possibly have never been aware of how they come across nd imagine they have been respectful to people in past times.
Learnt conduct is very hard to change in only one session. This is a big self recognition exercise. A student may write no swearing (as a boundary) since it is offensive; one other student might challenge this kind of as this is difficult how that student have been reared.
Where swearing is part of everyday language. They may be bewildered to find that this would offend another individual. Due to one more student getting brought up in a house filled with arguments and fighting he feels threatened whenever he hears swearing.
This could be the first course students did out of their comfort zones. Other learners can be from other classes, civilizations and qualification. Being made informed what is suitable and what is not acceptable can sometimes come as a shock. Some students make a complaint to me of other learners not cleaning and smelling unclean.
This is certainly a very hypersensitive issue and must be managed very carefully, specially when working with individuals with mental wellness or suprisingly low self esteem. Several students question why they need to bother cleaning as they came from children with no health. How could a person know this if it wasn’t taught at home? We don’t learn from people sniggering in back of our backs! When looking at for what reason the students have chosen the victim way, their eye widen since discussion originates.
Especially when looking at critical parent. Most of the learners have got or had a father or mother, partner, good friend (so called), sibling or perhaps a child that tries to control their behavior. For students looking at this kind of in black and white is indeed a Eureka instant.
What they locate hardest can be when they modify ego state to adult. They realize that the person that plays critical parent in your daily course becomes upset and exacerbated. Critical mother or father usually looking to make the scholar feel accountable for their adult state.
Students then becoming the victor not the victim. The moment reflected upon the student is able to see how this kind of relationship no longer serves an objective. Unless the critical mother or father changes all their behaviour trainees sees the relationship as unfavorable and will no longer want to pursue it. Learners generally come on to the course with some bad attitudes about the world or perhaps people around them.
Empowering learning and study and beating barriers they might have encourages the students to challenge their own behaviour. If the tutor contradicts learner’s behaviour and values, class discussion can be heated. Pupils can become angry. This is very much a part of the training journey in confidence building.
Self analysis and do it yourself awareness exercises come in very beneficial, enabling students much self reflection allowing for students to overcome their particular barriers through their own examination. Initial analysis is used to find out what level the student is at if the novice can manage the work load. Do they need an individual learning plan or see if extra support is necessary with numeracy, literacy or ICT.
Small, G really does agree If the requirements of the learners are achieved, the chances of success are significantly increased driving in reverse how important a preliminary assessment can be (2009, pg 530) Curzon, L argues that tests on a large number of courses may be different, so can sometimes not need legitimate weighting (2006 Pg385) meaning they will have repressive or restrictive influences upon teachers and students. It is thought that a preliminary assessment (numeracy or literacy) could startle a student at the beginning and let them feel inadequate. This can be because we were holding academically limited at school, the same dread could returning, with no come back of the pupil on the following session.
Small, G likewise states that just because a student has their math’s GCSE doesn’t mean they will do algebra or percentages. This won’t help in the science lab. (2009, Pg 542) One discussion would be that this has separated the wheat or grain from the skin. Teachers will have to teach to individual learning styles, rather than blaming the learners because of not learning or gaining the qualification, the tutors happen to be looked upon! Petty believes every students can easily learn, presented the help and support that is needed, mcdougal being gratifying. Assessment is very important to know the place that the learners are at the beginning, middle section and the end of the study course.
This is to reflect and measure wherever they are at the beginning of the course in terms of self-confidence. This is done by a your own questionnaire, which usually also measures where the student is in terms of joy, self esteem, self-confidence, relationships, marketing and sales communications skills, health, social expertise and interpersonal activities. The author would prefer to enable her college students, instead of giving the students fish, she would opt to give them a fishing rod to eat for lifetime. It is regarding empowering pupils to move on with their existence positively. The scholars don’t must be spoon given or hand held.
They simply need to learn the tools and skills for a more comfortable and effective healthier lifestyle. Because of this , the tutor is in prefer of the Humanist theory. Skinner believes that positive opinions gets college students motivated although negative opinions stops learners in their monitors, demotivating. The behaviourist instructor is in charge and is a good role unit to her college students giving the students rewards which can be positively strengthened with praise, smiles and positive feedback on work.
This is very beneficial as it likewise activates growth in self-confidence. This theory is very successful with pupils who lack self esteem, therfor very likely in the self-confidence course. The learners job more effectively as they are encouraged to reflect and self examine where they are in terms of self confidence and assurance. Students work nicely interacting and challenging bad self gratifying ideas as a group, be it natural or processed and beating barriers with each other. The students end the course still on a learning voyage of confident self finding through gatherings and advised reading.
The role of the tutor is usually to encourage the scholars to reveal and to boost the range of experience for the students to move about with their individual goals that are not dictated by tutor (myself) The two main writers with this field are Rogers (1974) and Maslow (1968) Rogers viewed this as a group of drives toward adulthood, autonomy, responsibility and self way. In conclusion mcdougal believes instructing is not really directive and one way, It really must be two way for it to work. Tutors should be reflective and differentiate between all college students learning variations and abilities. The author firmly feels that Pavlov’s theory is inhumane and away with the ark.
Taking responses from animals is very old hat and I’m sure if you deprived any creature or man they would sound familiar to receive food, because our principal need to live. Humans are much more clever than rodents and canines. Pavlov was firstly a psychologist and would be looking at animal answers rather than learning. The author backs Skinners theory and features seen this work in the confidence study course.
Once the college student is told they are in fact good at a thing (not only a mother, daddy or sibling) it stimulates them to need to do better and have a more comfortable, healthier lifestyle for all their family members. This has an enormous knock upon effect on their very own friends and individuals around them. They normally signpost their friends and partners on to the course. Adverse feedback is demoralising, the actual tutor finds useful can be asking the student how they will do it the very next time if they wanted a good outcome.
This allows student to self echo and learn by simply experience, the industry far superb learning curve. This theory links in with what Paignent, 1926 feels, that a people thought process was more important and learning can be developmental, relating information and learning what they already know. The cognitivists and behaviourist are usually more to do with becoming tutor led. The author prefers the humanist theory which usually looks even more into the nature of the novice and their activities that create the training situation. Maslow looks at the entire hierarchy of needs and backs up the belief of the writer.
Maslow is convinced that one need to move up the pyramid ahead of they can self actualise. Maslow’s theory is employed and shown on the confidence course. The tutor would like the students to view what is required to move up the pyramid.
1 student came in the following week and told me she got moved property because her safety requirements were not becoming met as a result of having ASBO neighbours. Trainees had been complaining to the council for many years. Having seen Maslow’s hierarchy the student decided to take very little out of the scenario! Using the Maslow model in the lecture, students can see in black and white so why they have not any self esteem and cannot self actualise and why all their social or perhaps safety requires are not being met.
For example fuel your body with healthy food choices like a car would utilize the best oil. Safety requirements, live with people who you feel content and safe with. Look at the confident people and negative persons in types life. Connect with positive people more rather than the bad ones. Belonging and take pleasure in.
Students start off measuring who may be respectful and positive in your daily course. Teporal and Bordell (1977) have recognized low self esteem as a barrier to learning. One thinks that overcoming barriers and having self confidence is much larger spread than one believed. It would be good for students to experience a self esteem check as part of all their initial analysis. This would be priceless efore the students go on to perform literacy and numeracy.
Looking at how ego states enter learning is extremely interesting; the humanist would welcome the adult to adult express. Whereas the cognitivists could play a far more critical father or mother role once teaching. Whilst doing this composition the author has truly looked into all of the theories and models and it is apparent the particular ideas had been put forward many years ago.
We have moved on a great deal in 70 years, it will be interesting to find out new ideas or updated old theories that are based upon more practical activities and research.