Person centred therapy evaluation dissertation
In order to assess the claim that Person-Centred Therapy offers the therapist everything he/she will likely need to treat consumers, one must look at the theoretical concepts of person-centred remedy (PCT) and its underlying philosophical influences.
The PCT strategy was developed throughout the 1940’s and 1950’s by an American psychiatrist Carl Rogers, now called Rogerian counselling; he suggested new humanistic ideas for guidance which transferred away from the doctor/patient relationship. PCT emphasises individual to individual relationship between therapist and client and focuses on the client’s standpoint; through effective listening the therapist attempts to understand the customer’s presenting issue and emotions.
In PCT the client determines the way, course, acceleration and entire treatment plus the therapist increases the customer’s insight and self understanding.
Rogers and Abraham Maslow, another psychologist, were the founders in the humanistic approach to psychology. “Humanistic theories of personality preserve that individuals are determined by the uniquely human need to expand all their frontiers and to realise because their potential as possible (Sanders 2002 p22).
A humanistic approach is based on all humans having an inbuilt ability to develop and accomplish their full potential known as “actualisation. In the event that this top quality can be controlled then human beings can resolve their own problems naturally, provided the right conditions. Rogers and Maslow supported a person’s potential to reach self actualisation. Maslow however referred to the ‘psychology of being’ and that home actualisation was an end itself at the top of the hierarchy of needs while Rogers considered the ‘psychology of becoming’- the process of being able to take control of your life and turn into the person you want to be ” a continuous process.
Maslow felt that human beings are always striving for self improvement which includes more than that of the essential needs intended for survival. This individual believed a person’s behaviour stems from the way people try to meet diverse needs. From 1943 to 1954 he developed the 5-level Hierarchy of Requires: * The first, lowest level, concerns a person’s physiologicalneeds: endurance, food, normal water and shelter. * The other addresses basic safety: protection from hazard and requirement of security, buy and predictability. * The 3rd covers take pleasure in & sociable behaviour: pertaining to love, friendship and acknowledgement by colleagues. * The fourth addresses self respect and esteem: the advantages of status, self-reliance, recognition, self esteem and respect from other folks. * The fifth and highest level concerns self-actualisation: the need to satisfy one’s personal potential.
His theory states that each need must be met in turn starting with the lowest about the need for survival and only if the lower demands are attained is a person able to will leave your site and go to the higher needs. However if something should happen and any kind of lower requires are no longer pleased then a person will pay attention to regaining these people before attaining the higher ones.
The lower several levels happen to be known as ‘deficiency’ needs which usually a person will make an effort to fulfil thus satisfying the deficiency. However behaviour concerning self mise à jour is known as a ‘growth’ need, ruled by the person’s inborn have to grow and realise his full potential. Maslow felt most people simply ever accomplished the first four needs, and this individual wanted to help clients to acquire ‘Self-Actualisation’ to be able to really turn into themselves. “The higher up the hierarchy we all go, the greater the need turns into linked to life experience and the less ‘biological’ it becomes. (Gross 1996 p. 97) It is a fact that folks achieve personal actualisation in lots of different ways, related to experience in later lifestyle rather than biology. If a person has a deficit in one of the reduced levels of needs then self- actualisation may not be achieved, causing anger, stress, unhappiness and depression.
Rogers trusted in people and looked at them in a confident and positive way, believing all humans naturally strove to achieve their particular potential; mental health issues arose when barriers to personal growth were present. Accordingly a person’s conduct is down to self perception or meaning of a circumstance and as no person else may know how a thing was recognized, the perceiver would be the finest person to assist themselves. PCT looks at the way the client happens to be interpreting and perceiving theirsituation, the moment to moment experience and what is being believed and sensed.
Rogers looked at psychological advancement as the process of a person following the path of réévaluation and so turning into oneself. A completely functioning person was someone on his way to do it yourself actualisation and he recognized certain characteristics that enabled that person to grasp his potential. A person needs to have: – Openness to see: he can effectively perceive his own feelings and experiences in the world; Existential living: he lives in the present rather than the earlier; Organismic trusting: know what will work for one and trust feelings and thoughts as correct, doing what comes naturally; Experiential freedom: the feeling of flexibility when making choices and choosing responsibility for personal actions; Creativeness: a person will naturally socialize and be involved in society through work, sociable relationships or perhaps through the arts or sciences.
A principal element of Rogers’ theory is a concept of do it yourself, described as becoming a set of self perceptions and beliefs, which include self understanding or graphic, self esteem and worth, and Ideal personal. Human conduct is driven by people attempting to maintain consistency among their self image and esteem; occasionally this regularity is certainly not achieved and a person’s self image may differ from their actual behaviour and how it is identified by others. A highly successful and respected person, may see themself as a complete failure: his or her actual experience is not consistent with all their ideal self, an incongruent condition.
Persons experiencing incongruent feelings, as a result of conflict with the self photo, feel threatened and may stop or reject these feelings. It is these types of defence components which avoid the self coming from growing and changing; widening the distance between truth and the self-image until the latter becomes even more unrealistic when the “incongruent person will start to experience vulnerable, mixed up and go through psychological disturbances. A consonant person’s personal image is usually flexible and changes with new experience, the personal image matches the thoughts and actions allowing for the opportunity to self-actualise.
A person’s home concept builds up through child years. Rogers thought thathumans developed conditions of worth: the conditions where great regard would be given. To be able to maintain this conditional confident regard a person will certainly suppress or deny actions and feelings which are undesirable to people who have are important, rather than using those thoughts, thoughts and awareness as a guide to behaviour. It really is this refusal that causes the difference between the organism and the home, the patient being anything a person does, feels and thinks, and the self being the business that is approved liked and respected by other folks ” positive regard.
While people have an inherent need to be cherished and recognized and therefore a purpose for positive self consider, they react and action in ways that meet approval so subsequently think of themselves as good, adorable and deserving. In order to encounter positive personal regard someone’s behaviour and condition of really worth must match; sometimes conditions can push one to react and work in ways that prevent do it yourself actualisation, therefore living life by simply someone else’s standards. This can trigger conflict among experience and self principle, leading to the introduction of psychological disorders.
Congruence and self réévaluation can only be reached if the person is functioning as a whole organism so conditions of worth have to be substituted with organismic ideals. Rogers keeps that the man organism has a underlying “actualising tendency which drives a person to develop and become self-employed. When a person is behaving under conditional positive consider which stops realisation of full potential, these conditions need to be taken out. The difference between your self and organism then simply becomes little and the person more closely aligned with his natural ideals: more peaceful and happy with life.
PCT aims to provide the right environment to enable the client to grow and develop, and sort out any concerns by using the ability for personal growth. Rogers believed the fact that therapy should take place in a supportive environment created by a close personal relationship between your client and the therapist. That allows insight into the patient’s feelings and behaviour while the therapist’s function is usually to offer warmth and sympathy, congruence and unconditional confident regard toward the client, taking what is stated in a non judgmental method.
Rogers felt that the most essential aspect insuccessful therapy was the therapist’s attitude. The element of the PCT is to reflect the client’s thoughts without reasoning and by accomplishing this the client is going to relax and express inner feelings. In addition, it lets the consumer know that the therapist is definitely listening, planning to understand, and clarifying the actual client is communicating. Filtration arises if the therapist picks out the tips, uses the clients very own words to produce an ambiance of trust, enabling connection to develop leading the client to feel capable of appreciate current feelings and past encounters.
Rogers thought that in order to create this environment pertaining to growth and alter three main conditions have to be provided for a therapeutic relationship to be produced. Empathy. The therapist must try to your client’s inner world and understand how your customer is feeling through sensitively listening and reflecting backside what the customer is saying. “Carl Rogers defined empathy as the ability to feeling the customer’s world as if it were your own without losing the “as if quality (Sanders 2002 p68). Congruence. This involves the therapist being “real open to the expressed emotions and becoming genuine with all the client. There should be no surroundings of authority, enabling the client to feel the therapist is being honest and responding as a true person not really analysing precisely what is being stated and trying to match it into a therapeutic model.
Unconditional confident regard (UPR). The specialist must provide non judgmental warmth and acceptance of the client, irrespective of past actions, as a advantageous person free to explore and discuss all thoughts, feelings and conduct positive and negative with out fear of rejection or judgement. The client must not feel the need to earn confident regard; a large number of people seek out help due to disturbances due to unreasonable harsh judgements. It is vital to ensure that encounter is not really repeated during therapy. If the client feels an evaluation will be undertaken, an incorrect front can be put up or perhaps the therapy ended altogether.
It truly is these 3 core conditions that form the foundation of the therapeutic relationship. However , Rogers also presumed that important to offering the right conditions for replace the helper must make psychological contact with the client. “Client and therapist need to be at the same time aware ofeach other ahead of anything restorative can happen (Sanders, Franklin & Wilkins 2009 l 39. ) Psychological speak to, the relationship among therapist and client; the consumer is weak or restless; and will get empathy, UPR and justesse. All of these conditions are necessary and the core conditions must be used adequately for helpful change. These kinds of core circumstances are believed to enable to the consumer to increase and develop in his personal way for being the desired person. PCT focuses on the customer’s own feelings and thoughts, not those of the specialist and provides a setting where the client can check out personal encounters to strengthen personal structure which helps to reach actualisation.
Both primary desired goals of PCT are to maximize a customer’s self esteem and openness to see. The therapy also helps to bring the clients home image and ideal home closer collectively and enables the client to have a better do it yourself understanding. The client’s levels of defensiveness, guilt and insecurity are decreased resulting in more positive and comfortable human relationships with other folks and a great improving capability to experience emotions and emotions when they arise. The benefits of research carried out employing this approach demonstrate that consumers maintain stable changes above long periods of time, and the changes happen to be comparable with changes achieved using other sorts of therapy.
It is just a very effective method to treat people suffering from depression or marriage issues but PCT does appear to be ineffectve than other humanistic therapies the place that the therapist presents more suggestions. Rogers actually developed his PCT in a children’s medical center as ‘play therapy’ and his theory has been used to assist individuals suffering from major depression, anxiety, alcohol disorders, intellectual dysfunction and personality disorders and have been proved good when utilized on an individual basis as well as in group and family members therapy. In the later element of his job he individuals people suffering from schizophrenia.
Though PCT can be popular will not achieve a level of success, a vital criticism in this approach would be that the core circumstances should always be offered by a good therapist before moving onto different theories and strategies to help to make the client better. This critique shows there is a degree of misunderstanding of the genuine problems of regularly providing UPR, empathy and congruence in the therapeutic setting, as these can easily clash and causeconflict. Simply being able to keep these main conditions needs much focus on the part of the therapist, provided that everyone has ideals and values which are hard to control and disregard, so it may be more genuine for the therapist to own their own beliefs and morals whilst not judging others.
PCT does not need the counsellor to undergo any specific schooling or do it yourself development in just about any particular way through personal experience, besides to provide the core circumstances. Rogers assumed it is the romance between the specialist and the customer that results in the beneficial change. Additional criticism, of therapists displaying the main conditions, is that it can business lead the client to believe that the specialist is encouraging of the circumstance and perspective to such an extent the client will no longer feels the need to change. The main reason for this is the therapist providing no alternatives as there is absolutely no position of authority inside the PCT to guide the client to generate constructive improvements.
PCT has also been criticised due to the lack of composition and inadequate direction to help clients in actual crisis. A few therapists might argue that this sort of approach is not ideal or successful for clientele who will be inarticulate or perhaps poorly informed, whereas other feel that this method can be put on anyone. Even though this approach can be positive would it be enough to solely make a good romantic relationship between consumer and specialist and provide the clients having a safe space to think valued and supported to ensure that change to happen? If a consumer is encountering real difficulty and is not able to see a way forward and has lost all wish then it is important for the assistance to range from therapist. Customers who have knowledgeable this type of therapy often feel that is will not provide the preferred solutions they are really looking for and still have become bored, frustrated and annoyed while using Rogerian style.
In summary, although the person-centred procedure is plainly a highly effective method of helping and it is widely accepted and used by clinical psychologists today, I really do not feel that it offers the therapist all that he/she needs to treat clients. I believe that no one therapy can assert an absolute effectiveness in treating clients, as humans are inherently different because of differing social backgrounds and life encounter andhence every single therapist and client romance will be exclusive, producing varying results. I feel that one theory that suits everyone is certainly not the strategy a good therapist should adopt. Some people may find it simple to talk about their very own feelings and also help themselves in a PERCENTAGE environment whereas to another this type of approach can be completely overwelming and unsuccessful.
I believe PERCENTAGE is an effective therapy for treating self esteem and relationship problems however it would not go nearly far enough to help individuals with deep seated psychological disorders. A client in crisis might not have the ability to self-help and the non-directive approach may be unhelpful and ineffective each time a client can be seeking obvious guidance via a counsellor. Therefore I believe that it is the job with the therapist to determine which theory would help the client far better resolve their very own issues and be prepared to end up being flexible in approach. The skill set of a good therapist would have a variety of different strategies and therapeutic ways to offer the consumer and though a person-centred approach is a great place to start, the therapist should be prepared to progress to even more structured approaches as suitable.