Role changes during old age only the materials

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Paper type: Personal concerns,

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Pension plan Plan, Transition Theory, Gerontology, Dementia

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Research from The particular Literature Review chapter:

Role Transitions Into Retirement years

Centuries before, growing old was uncommon and others able to change into senior years were revered by their community as instructors, tribal historians, and sources of wisdom (Nelson, 2005, l. 208-209). Ageing was therefore something to look forward to. In contemporary American society, yet , transitioning in to old age carries a number of negative connotations, which include being ineffective and an encumbrance on culture. Once the identified value was stripped coming from reaching retirement years, other pressing concerns started to dominate social attitudes toward elder people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) posits that social constructs help protect individuals from the indifference and chaos on the planet we inhabit and among the most prominent cases is faith. Ageism also helps shield individuals coming from thoughts and feelings of the own mortality by isolating themselves from those inhabiting old age. If perhaps TMT effectively reflects thinking toward old age in American society then role changes commonly connected with growing old can be stressful. To get a better understanding of which role transitions tend to be traumatic for old adults, latest literature with regards to this theme will be evaluated here.


Hinrichsen and Clougherty (2006) discuss study findings supporting their bottom line that retirement living is not an especially difficult time and the apparent empty-nest problem is a exceptional phenomenon. They conclude that in general, old adults modify well to the loss of roles as they enter old age, nevertheless taking on new roles may be stressful. For instance , transitioning from spouse to caregiver, or perhaps becoming a acquire a persistent health issue, could cause significant concerns in a individual’s life. Seldom is any person prepared for people transitions when they happen, which will places individuals at risk intended for experiencing a lesser quality of life and developing mental health problems like depression. One of the more difficult transitions is the part of caregiver for a family member suffering from dementia. The emotional and physical toll may be substantial because dementia is known as a progressive disease lasting years. Another changeover requiring significant adjustments is becoming a parent or guardian to a grandchild or grandchildren, with both confident and bad outcomes.

Shifting into senior years, contrary to the forecasts of TMT, is consequently generally well-tolerated by many old adults. Maybe ageism dominates attitudes toward the old plus the process of getting old, at least among younger adults, however the actual connection with growing old delivers experiences and wisdom that moderates the terror of mortality. One exception to this outcome may be the intrusion of recent roles, just like caregiver, becoming chronically sick, or dealing with the part of child-rearing grandchildren. Less older adults, however , have trouble with new tasks, such as being a retiree. The Stereotype Embodiment Theory provides an explanation for why role transitions might be difficult for a few but not others (Levy, 2009). According to the theory a percentage of older adults still avoid socially-derived negative connotations towards retirement years, resulting in negative mental and physical overall health outcomes. Additional factors may also play a role, since the next section about retirement reveals.

Variation in Pension Outcomes

Powerful retirement with regards to individual well-being depends on numerous factors, which includes changes in income, social networks, and status (Damman, Henkens, Kalmijin, 2013). People never married or in a life-long marriage were less likely to have problems with retirement compared to all others, due in part to the economical strain of divorce. In addition , men, more than women, your loss of cash flow more extremely. These the desired info is especially interesting, because the analyze took place in the Netherlands where a universal monthly pension system and private pensions happen to be widely used. Compared to decrease of income and status, shed social contacts was the variable most often reported by retirees; nevertheless , with time the value of dropped social cable connections declined, while the misplaced income and status continued to be missed. Overall, the experts of this study concluded that is it doesn’t amount an individual invested to their work life that determines how effortlessly they change to old age, with all those investing intensely experiencing the finest difficulty with losses. These kinds of findings are consistent with those of a study contrasting the pension experiences of career and non-professional women, with job women identifying more with their former job roles and experiencing the very best sense of loss together with the transition to retirement (Price, 2002). Non-professional women, nevertheless , seemed to adjust quite well with their new position as pensioners because all their identities are not tied to their very own work functions and continuity was preserved concerning the other roles inside their lives.

Damman and fellow workers (2013) appeared for significant statistical connections between work/health history and retirement success, yet found not one. In contrast, a European study identified that poor work circumstances predicted a desire to retire as soon as possible (Dal Bianco, Trevisan, Weber, 2015). The relationship between poor work environment and real or incomplete early retirement living was less strong, but still significant. The desire to changeover into the role of retired person, argued the authors with this study, was probably because of the combined effects of generous pension check plans popular among European countries, seniority pay plans, and strict work agreements, because these factors eroded the readiness of employers to invest in schooling senior staff. In other words, the greater the bonuses to stop working the more unlikely employers will certainly invest in increasing the work environment for older workers.

Continued employment is another option for those entering retirement years and Carr and Kail (2012) analyzed which factors predicted this kind of outcome. Based on their studies, retirees capable to devote some of their discretionary time to volunteer work were more likely to renter the staff at least part-time. This kind of relationship, yet , was simply observed amongst retirees who had been actively engaged in volunteer function prior to retirement. In contrast, retirees burdened with caregiving roles, such as caring for a sick spouse or perhaps parenting grandchildren, were least likely to reenter the staff, but only when caregiving began around the moments of retirement. This relationship was not observed amongst retirees who were caregivers before retirement. An explanation for the findings, one particular offered by the authors with the study, can be consistent with continuity theory (Atchley, 1989), in a way that individuals familiar with being engaged in the community through work and volunteering will continue that trend following retirement. The imposition of a caregiving role at old age, however , can preclude staff reentry.

Becoming a Grandparent

Thoughts of getting old often conjure images of becoming a grandparent, but how is this event actually experienced? In general, being a person age groups they become fewer concerned with their age, would prefer to be a younger grow older, and hope to live much longer (Kaufman, Elder, 2003). In comparison to men, however , women are usually more accepting of their actual age group. In terms of child-rearing roles, father and mother generally feel older, although grandparents aspire to live a long life. Grandparents also tend to feel youthful and imagine old age begins later, although only by those who enjoy being a grandparent. If, nevertheless , the grandparenting role commenced at a comparatively early age then a person is likely to identify with being older. This locating is according to those of Armstrong (2003), whom found that girls across ethnic lines assumed being a granny implied being old. These findings exposed a number of factors influence age group identity and becoming a grandparent is plainly one of them. Being a grandparent, however , takes on new meanings the moment this role involves parenting grandchildren.

Hinrichsen and Clougherty (2006) comprehensive a case examine of an African-American widower retiree who allowed his one adult girl to return home shortly after the birth of her son (pp. 145-147). He ended up child-rearing the child as the daughter functions or was out with friends. Animosity began to build and this individual eventually was diagnosed with key depression. Through the counseling classes he confesses that his wife was the primary father or mother in the along with was for that reason feeling irritated providing proper care for your child due to this lack of knowledge. In addition , he had failed to discuss the guidelines of daycare before his daughter relocated back home. This situatio study uncovered how attaining new functions in senior years can be stress filled for grandfathers and facilitates the studies of Bullock (2005), who found that grandfathers raising grandchildren often experience a sensation of powerlessness once reentering the role of parent, featuring daily parenting care, then when thinking about the long lasting parenting needs of the kid. The age variety of the grandfathers participating in this study was 65 to 89, and so the latter concern, at least is realistic.


The factors that influence part transitions since older adults enter retirement years seem many, but some generalities are conceivable. Most adults experience retirement living in positive terms, except those who commit heavily in their careers (Damman, Henkens, Kalmijin, 2013; Value, 2002). This kind of conclusion was supported by several studies and suggests continuity theory clarifies at least a portion of retirees who have miss different facets of their jobs (Atchley, 1989). Alternatively, advocates of belief embodiment theory would claim retirees who miss aspects of their jobs do

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