Running in the family by michael ondaatje
Paper type: Literature,
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Published following Ceylon’s decolonization, Michael Ondaatje’s Running in the Family (1982) aims to lengthen his personal problems of reconciling identity to explicate Ceylon’s context. By exemplifying the archetypical Burgher as one whom experiences a feeling of Western upper class, identity entrée and social alienation, Ondaatje offers a post-colonial talk which investigates the effects of colonization. Ultimately, the representations of Burghers as affluent, unklar and rootless are intended to light up Ceylon’s context and the influences of colonization.
Resulting from their extraordinaire Western lineage, Burghers are portrayed to be affluent. Simply by alluding to “the outdated governor’s home” (Ondaatje 24) that this individual resided in with the aesthetic imagery of its “18th-century Dutch defense” (Ondaatje 26), Ondaatje unearths his lavish heritage like a descendant with the ruling Nederlander elites, accentuating his family’s historical popularity. His family members was portrayed to be really prosperous, culminating into widespread narratives of their decadence. In fact , they were thus wealthy that they can simply vested “funds for 3 years of university education” (Ondaatje 31) to Mervyn. Actually, he “had not even exceeded the entrance exam” (Ondaatje 31) and was haphazardly splurging the fortune upon “extravagant bedrooms in Cambridge” (Ondaatje 31). This illustrates the careless attitude the Burghers experienced towards funds due to the sum of prosperity they had. Similarly, Ondaatje’s family will retreat “during the hot months¦ to Nuwara Eliya” (Ondaatje 39), a spot only for the privileged, to indulge in “constant parties, horses racing¦and severe golf” (Ondaatje 39). This kind of reckless actions reflects their very own excesses, that enables them to participate in the typical activities of the American nobility, focusing their cultural status and Westernized life-style. Furthermore, frequent intertextual referrals to high-calibre Western entertainment, namely “Jane Austen’s Persuasion” (Ondaatje 22) and Shakespearean plays, reinforces Ondaatje’s fortunate status like a civilised Burgher with Western inclinations. Quintessentially, Burghers happen to be portrayed since wealthy, indulgent individuals because of their Western descent.
Subsequently, Ondaatje shows them to become ambivalent due to their entanglement with identity downturn. By utilizing the contrasting icons of “jungle” (Ondaatje 21) and “snow” (Ondaatje 21) to represent the East and West respectively, Ondaatje illustrates the divergence between the ethnicities, elucidating the divisive nature of the Burghers’ convoluted identity. This is emphasized when Bampa dresses in both Traditional western “grey suits” (Ondaatje 56) and Ceylonese “sarong and vest” (Ondaatje 56), exhibiting his mimicry of both cultures. Since characterized by Bampa, Burghers will be fixated in “those ‘in-between’ spaces” (Spinks, ch. 5) where they are really neither Ceylonese nor Dutch, manifesting into persistent stress as they pander to both culture whilst suppressing the other (Singh). This self-division is strong with the metaphor of “floods¦(which) swirled (Ondaatje) away” (Ondaatje 23), typifying the fluidity of identity in frequently transgressing between your two cultures. Likewise, “the train kept shunting back and forth” (Ondaatje 155) for the Colombo-Trincomalee manage, never getting either vacation spot in the West or East despite Mervyn’s attempts. Evidently, Ondaatje underscores the Burghers’ powerlessness in discussing identity, presenting their ceaseless entrapment by their conflicted identity. As a result, Burghers are represented as irresolute individuals.
Simultaneously, Burghers are showed as outsiders with a impression of rootlessness from Ceylon. While Ondaatje practices local customs, including “eat(ing) with (his) hands” (Ondaatje 26), it is a functionality of id and an effort to go indigenous to assimilate into Ceylon (Singh). This can be subsequently uncovered through the image imagery of him “shovelling in the rice¦ (and) crunching the shell” (Ondaatje 26), displaying his desperations to portray himself as a local who is in tuned with his Ceylonese tradition. This self-deception perpetuates, visiting the extent where he calls the next thunderstorm “delicious heat” (Ondaatje 79) despite the incongruent reality that “No one particular moves too much from¦ the fan” (Ondaatje 79). Therefore, it appears that Ondaatje romanticizes Ceylon for self-deception. Additionally , he likens Ceylon to the girly symbol of “a necklace off the ear canal of India” (Ondaatje 63), aligning with the Westernized notion of the “feminine East” (Pattberg). This differentiates him being a “cultural outsider” (Ty 102) who opinions Ceylon coming from western lenses, bolstering his self-proclaimed assert as “the foreigner” (Ondaatje 79). Consecutively, sequentially, Ondaatje constructs Ceylon being a fantastical imagined space with all the visual images of “slipper-footed elephants, a white queen¦ (and) a Moorish king¦” (Ondaatje 63). This exoticizes the Ceylonese landscapes, portraying them while “alternative planets that create nostalgia or evoke memories of the homeland” (Ty 100) that he would not belong to, subjecting his ethnic alienation to Ceylon. Ultimately, as embodied by Ondaatje, Burghers happen to be represented as outsiders who are broadly dislocated from their Ceylonese root base.
Aside from exploring Ondaatje’s struggles with his identity and facilitating mental catharsis, these types of portrayals were intended to illumine the effects of colonization. By characterizing the Burghers as wealthy, Ondaatje uncovers the presence of Traditional western supremacy inside the historical context. During colonization, Ceylonese locals were degraded as “savages¦(living in) mud-huts” (Ondaatje 86) by the Americans, exemplifying these to be uncivilised, poor and filthy. In juxtaposition, the Burghers had been recurrently linked to ideas of Western aristocracy and civilisation, exhibiting the political and economic difference between them as well as the natives. Therefore, the people were marginalized while the Burghers were increased, revealing the colonial advancement social inequality. Additionally , Ondaatje represents the Burghers since ambivalent people, signifying the erosion of Ceylon’s nationwide identity because of the colonial enforcement of Westernization. Yet, the Burghers’ experience with self-division and identity downturn were exacerbated, estranging these people from Ceylonese culture. This kind of rootless personality parallels the national sentiments after colonization, where most are disturbed with a lack of owned by their country. Essentially, these portrayals expose the problems of colonization in worsening social couche, diluting the native tradition and appearing generations of culturally out of place individuals.
Cumulatively, Ondaatje’s search for a closure in his identity crises has created into these kinds of depictions of Burghers since wealthy, self-divided and rootless. Beyond achieving emotional simulation, these portrayals are unified under a post-colonial commentary which in turn expounds around the effects of colonization and Ceylon’s context. Above all, Ondaatje compels readers to understand that colonization has corroded Ceylon’s nationwide identity, therefore manifesting in cultural worries which instigated the city war (Spinks, ch. 5).