The current scenarios and practice of sdi in nepal

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The term “Spatial Data Infrastructure” (SDI) can often be used to represent the relevant foundation collection of technologies, policies and institutional agreements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial data. SDI details the overall methodology, process, existing practice, conditions, policies of Nepal. This paper explains the current situations and practice of SDI in Nepal along with future needs for effective and efficient managements. The development of SDI can be not fully phase alternatively in embryonic stages. The service we take only regarding are topographical sheets, land resources and so forth along with base data collected in the Project of Eastern Nepal Mapping and Western Mapping which was aid from the government of Finland. All those data had been collected via last 4 decades but still there exists hindrance of updated types, since there are many standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and ISO (International Standardization) for talking about the Standards yet seems somehow following ISO19115 and INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION FÜR STANDARDISIERUNG 19110. Since the Review Department is usually owner from the Geoportal, they have renewed the new edition of Geoportal from July 2018. Therefore, it makes easier, little research and simple to use.


Nepal called highest optimum of region in world i. e. Install Everest. It really is located between two giant country India and China and tiawan. The study region is demonstrated in determine 1 given below showing the in light color. The role of geoinformation is crucial to expanding countries just like Nepal. Were in the stage of expansion which makes determined by Geospatial Sector. The conditions SDI and NSDI are used interchangeably. The SDI provides a basis to get spatial data discovery, analysis, and application for users and suppliers within every levels of authorities, the commercial sector, the non-profit sector, academia and by citizens generally. Comparing the SDI system with Chinese suppliers and India are very advanced because they contained current data, real time, web processing and dish imagery. While using growing field in the geospatial sector, surveying and other related sector problem may develops how to control and deal with those data for present and upcoming perspectives. Thus, government of Nepal realizes need of SDI in the 7th National five-year Decide to till. Several agencies will be creating several standards of information, Survey department as a National Mapping firm created the digital topographic databases from its base map made between 99 and 2002. Finally, Countrywide Geographic System Information Plan (NGIIP) was established as geoportal for delivering the geospatial resources to users. Talking about the interoperability it fulfills the condition of about Level a few Semantic Interoperability according to different standard of interoperability. The geoportal can be not as much as technical and functional like INSPIRE geoportal by Europe. For some reason developing in its potential of technological and useful applicability is phase of development. This system is the control, update, control and repair under Study Department with communicating several stakeholders.


To boost planning and resource management in Nepal through the advancement a geographic information facilities for the access of geographic and related data for decision-making.


To develop a geospatial data infrastructure program for assisting data showing among Review Department, Central Bureau of Statistics and participating companies.


SDI is definitely not a solitary element rather it is the integrations of program, policy, criteria, data, forms etc . This Methodology is easy and just demonstrating the the way the SDI was conceptualized. The procedure initiated simply by combining the framework datasets and fundamental datasets receiving certain requirements, norms, rules, policy etc . to establish the meta data assistance. While understanding the metadata they are simple just consisting the term of publisher, date of publication, expense of the data and so forth Then after the database is constituting in the different level of pictures at diverse scale. Following user questions the data in geoportal employing keywords and retrieve the results relating to end user demands demands and requirements. Finally, the geoportal retrieves the result in communication network.

All the building block of SDI are defined and present detail information. Apart from that might be the existing and predictive elements for improving the current ones.


For defining the datasets spatial reference system is in MUTM (Modified Universal Slanted Mercator). The entire topographic map following cartography practices. Thinking about the policy making there are many discussion board, seminar, convention etc . will be being kept for ingredients and setup. But still there is absolutely no concrete NSDI policy that makes all the policies come underneath one umbrella.


The components are definitely the building blocks with the SDI. Listed here are the components:

  • Data producer: the organization that produces the geospatial info mainly since Survey Department.
  • Different Partners: This section includes just like forestry office, some map producing private consultancy.
  • Data Users: Everybody who uses the information freely or right after paying for their particular beneficial.
  • Legislative Physique: The ministry, department that regulate through after having certain norms, rules, plan and policy.
  • Answering service Suppliers: The ISP provider just like Nepal Telecom for conversing between consumer and storage space.

Stakeholder Analysis

Stakeholders are those person, institutions, teams, media, celebrations etc . whom are directly and indirectly involved pertaining to producing, taking care of, controlling geodata. The stakeholders are Survey Department, Office of Souterrain and Geology, Department of National Recreation area and Conservation Area, Division of Forestry and Department of Statics. The study department below Ministry of Agriculture, Terrain Management and Cooperative, Authorities of Nepal is mainly responsible for the institution, operation and Maintenance. There may be sometime trouble and lack in communication among stakeholders resulting the challenge in showing data. This might be due to ignorance, lack of knowledge lack of solid political determination.

Data Suppliers

Your data are the efficient and primary units of SDI. We must manage the variety of geodata with a statistical features and data. The Data Contributing factors are:

  • Survey Department
    • Topographical Survey Division
    • Geodetic Survey Section
    • Cadastral Survey Division
    • Nationwide Geographic Info Infrastructure Department
    • Land work with Resource Data
  • Department of Souterrain and Geology
  • Department of National Recreation area and Conservation Area.
  • Datasets

    The essential datasets made by above corporations and companies are

    • Administrative Border
    • Here the datasets are (Local Product Level) and Old Administrative Boundary with scale (1: 1000000).

    • Topographic Info
    • Here the datasets are Contour (1: 250000), Hydrography (1: 250000), Building (1: 250000), Specified Area (1: 250000), Vehicles (1: 500000), Transportation (1: 250000)

      Utility Lines (1: 250000), Contours (1: 1000000), Designated Location (1: 1000000)

      Topography (1: 1000000).

    • Geodetic Control Point
    • The datasets develop the different buy of control point just like 1st order, 2nd Order, 3rd Order and fourth Order. But the task of geodetic control point can be ongoing process for creating datasets.

    • Cartographique Data
    • The datasets develop the all the cartographique map of whole country with their land owner data. The task of cadastral data is ongoing process for producing datasets.

    • Orthophoto
    • Simply some orthophoto of handful of cities were mapped. The dataset of orthodata happen to be ongoing method for creating datasets.

    The following primary data intended for SDI may be listed while Geodetic Control points

    Management Boundary, Built-up Areas, Travel network, Geology, Land covers, Hydrographic, Topography, Utilities, Cadaster, DTM, Census.

    Data users

    Inspecting the trend of using the geodata shows there exists increasing styles. The users are from the variety of different domains including learners for research and their tasks, ministry of energy for building the hydropower project, division of road needs the topographic map for street construction, the daily transaction of the land property benefit. Some feedback from them had been data accuracy is low and only limited formats are available.


    There are many standards ISO (International Standards Organization) and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). However in our case, it has implemented only ISO 19115. Right here standard only defines the following components just like dates, recognition, extent, quality, spatial resolution, coordinate program. Rest of ISO standards are certainly not there for defining the elements like cataloguing of the features, web mapping application, on the web data finalizing etc . In the case of OGC standards partially following web map service but rest of service like world wide web feature services, web protection service, Cataloguing web support etc . remain missing.


    Before it was applied as Countrywide Geographic Info Infrastructure nevertheless from the July 2018 it was modified. The newest one is quite good and informative. The URL of geoportal is http://nationalgeoportal. gov. np/. Geoportal is key source intended for the data posting and querying. Geoportal are characterized by specialized and practical.

    Software program for making the geoportal happen to be Apache, QGIS, ArcGIS, SQL, etc . Pertaining to the search criteria customer must type keywords. Considering the followed regular is Internet Map Assistance. If a person wants to know for cataloguing information, after that there is metadata information. The metadata factors contain the title, abstract, keywords, category and extent (East, West, North, South). The search problem shows the relevant offer wherever user can pick according to require. It contains the particular listed data heading while user question. There are zero standard search and query functions like the Catalog Internet Service (CSW) defined as OGC standards. The data as graphic format are just delivered to users. But the downloading are only are available in map format not feature services. However the downloads are just offered in map format certainly not feature services. For installing results user must open up the accounts. All the data are gathered after the filling up the specific form then verifying the account. At this point the question may well arise the pricing, normally the price will be based upon the number of bed sheet. Generally, the pricing intended for per bed sheet is like three or more euro every sheet intended for large scale map and 62 cents every sheet to get small scale map. The pricing technique is based upon random approach, no medical steps for defining but cost effective for users. It just focuses on the generating the minimum income for those cost of generating the merchandise. But there exists still problem for method of spending money on-line because continue to there are no online transactions. Next, somehow you must go Survey Section for buying the map products. There is straightforward quality managing procedure for the implementation of data.

    The graphical user interface is usually user friendly. The geoportal has variety of areas with good look and color management for websites.


    During the process of creating SDI and continuous operation, there are the following challenges happen to be

    • Fulfilling the user demands because consumer demand is extremely high as technological advancement.
    • The continuous sustainability from the stakeholder though enhancements made on time and governmental policies.
    • The financial crisis may result in failure of project at a later date.
    • The technology is definitely changing swiftly day by day and the way to cope with that.
    • Deficiency of education master’s degree in geoinformatics may lead to lack of skilled and competent manpower.

    Summary and Conclusions

    The NSDI is simple and simple to access your data. But there still lack of many criteria and solutions. There are certainly not updated just some modifications in geoportal service. It is ironic to talk about that they were old might be somehow pointless for the room related duties. Comparing with INSPIRE NSDI is very classic and classic. It is in some way the database maintaining with all the image formats of Land. They are only limited so you can get the information of services somehow. The standards are not fully getting together with the OGC and INTERNATIONALE ORGANISATION FÜR STANDARDISIERUNG. Besides, the security of the geoportal is also crucial factor because already hacked onetime previously.

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