The dualism of raskolnikov
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, in the work Criminal offenses and Punishment, makes it very clear from the beginning that Raskolnikov, his somewhat non-traditional protagonist, is in a “disturbed state of mind” (Dostoyevsky, 13). Based on the Russian word for “schism, inches Raskolnikov’s name itself is definitely suggestive of his two fold personality. Raskolnikov’s dichotomous individuality reveals by itself primarily in his reaction to his crime, his treatment of his mother and sister, his dealings with Sonya, wonderful attitude to human contact. The “extraordinary man” part of Raskolnikov’s personality reveals us the destructive characteristics of self-absorption, which this individual eventually works in escaping from, due to the smoother and more emotional side of his persona.
Even though Raskolnikov regularly tries to rationalize and warrant his crime, the homicide oppresses him with a feeling of self-revulsion as he knows the mischief of his egotistical “extraordinary man” theory. Raskolnikov looks at himself as part of an elite “superman” echelon, who have posses the unofficial directly to commit a crime, if the work leads to the benefit of mankind. He “[allows] his conscience to step across certain¦obstacles” and places himself above interpersonal mores, committing an intentional murder mostly for the sake of demonstrating his theory (Dostoyevsky, 308). Raskolnikov’s unconscious, however , recognizes this incorrect reasoning and a sense of self-repugnance starts to contact form in his brain. Raskolnikov handles to rationalize his theory consciously, however , his semi-conscious daydreams display that, somehow he is conscious of his meaning flaws. One of many daydreams Raskolnikov has is usually an occurrence from his childhood. This individual dreams regarding the eliminating of a mare by several drunken cowboys. As a child, Raskolnikov weeps for the horse’s suffering. His compassionate reaction to this raw act indicates his profound ambivalence about committing murder. The enduring he encounters in this fantasy can be construed as an indicator for his later repentance with the crime this individual commits. In another dream, Raskolnikov’s murder victim comes back to haunt him in a dream. In this wish he is aiming to kill the old lady but this time his attacks have no impact. We can see, again, that the killing scene haunts Raskolnikov’s sub-conscious. The old girl refusing to die in his dream suggests that instinctively Raskolnikov senses the faults in the theory. Later, while in Siberia, Raskolnikov dreams of a society infected by a bad virus that is making persons violent and aggressive although also giving them the impression of being morally correct. We know that Raskolnikov is actually a victim on this sort of “plague” and the distributed of this problem to humanity is described as something like doomsday in Raskolnikov’s fantasy. This dream suggests that Raskolnikov recognizes his own emotional illness plus the chaos that accompanies his “extraordinary men” theory. Dostoyevsky implies that Raskolnikov’s internal struggle to “step over” the line of accepted meaningful conduct is definitely futile because it is difficult to ignore the sanctity of life and humanity through selfish hobbies. Dostoyevsky signifies that Raskolnikov’s inner struggle to “step over” the line of acknowledged moral perform through self-centered pursuits can be futile as ultimately the softer, more emotional side of Raskolnikov’s personality is usually stronger and reminds him the consequences of ignoring the sanctity of life and humanity.
Raskolnikov alternates between solitude and a powerful craving for human speak to due to his dichotomous persona. From the beginning, Raskolnikov’s “soul [is]¦affected with a gloomy impression of alienation¦ [of] infinite solitariness” (Dostoyevsky, 126). His “extraordinary man” theory separates him via “ordinary” people and forces him in solitude. Nevertheless , this furor becomes dramatically more severe the moment he commits his crime, “at that moment he experienced as though, using a pair of scissors, he had minimize himself removed from everyone and everything” (Dostoyevsky, 140). Because the story continues we find Raskolnikov trying to integrate himself back into the social flip. At one point, he finds remoteness so oppressive that he begs Polenka, Katerina Ivanova’s little child, to appreciate and pray for him. Polenka’s one kiss, an easy gesture of love, leads Raskolnikov to file, “life would still be possible¦his your life hadn’t perished along with the outdated woman” (Dostoyevsky, 227). Raskolnikov’s desire for Polenka’s kiss and prayers is an proof of the mental side of his persona. Although his darker area forces him to take away from contemporary society, his more humane side suffers below his self-imposed isolation and ultimately obliges him to seek individual contact. The destruction self-absorption causes to his heart and soul is questioned with the man contacts this individual makes, just like Polenka’s hug, and this qualified prospects him to believe that he can still avoid this break down.
Raskolnikov is shateringly torn among devotion to his mom and sis and a great inexplicable aversion to their mere presence. On the other hand, their unwavering support assists sustain him despite his ailing head and notion. In the eyes of his mother and sister, Raskolnikov has always been “the focus of all their hopes”. Without a doubt, his mother has generally “done only live in the¦expectation of the quick receipt of any letter from her admired Rodya” (Dostoyevsky, 641). Raskolnikov’s self compression rejects the oppressive dependence of his family upon him. Additionally , Dunya’s decision to get married to Luzhin to assist the family makes Raskolnikov feel inadequate in featuring for them, making Raskolnikov upset. It is possible that Raskolnikov gets angry mainly because his inability clashes with his belief that he is an extraordinary man meant to benefit the human race. At a single point, we find him considering on his ambivalence towards his family, stating, “¦how I use loved them! Why will i now hate them? Yes, I bodily hate them¦” (Dostoyevsky, 327) However , Raskolnikov does, most certainly, possess some brotherly feelings, as he adamantly shields Dunya equally from “prostituting herself” by simply marrying Luzhin and via Svidrigailov, who seems bad and wrong. In fact , Raskolnikov is more dependent on and attached with his family’s support than he realizes. He does not understand that their devotion to him is partially what has endured his perception in life and prevented him from doing suicide. It is additionally important to realize that although Raskolnikov persists in denying his wrongdoing in relation to the tough, he begins down the road to repentance starting with recognizing that “he acquired made [his mom and sister] unhappy” (Dostoyevsky, 618). This reputation marks first Raskolnikov’s approval of his guilt. In meeting with his mother near to the end with the novel, Raskolnikov declares that “[he’s] often loved her¦ [and he’ll] never quit loving her” (Dostoyevsky, 613). The regret Raskolnikov feels for making his family undergo demonstrates his human wants and the potential he features in escaping from self-absorption to embrace mankind instead.
Raskolnikov’s biformity is portrayed best in his relationship with Sonya, in whose selflessness becomes the key to his salvation. Nowhere is definitely Raskolnikov’s duality more blatantly obvious than during his conversations with Sonya. He alternates among many feelings while discussing with her. Immediately prior to his confession to her, “a caustic hatred of Sonya [passes] through his heart” (Dostoyevsky, 488). Sonya is a sacrificial, kind-hearted individual who becomes a prostitute in order to support her family members. The selflessness of Sonya clashes together with the self-absorption of Raskolnikov which immense big difference might be the main of Raskolnikov’s hatred. Yet , this hate quickly inches[vanishes] like a wraith” the moment this individual senses her loving eyes, and he begins to seek out her approval and forgiveness, longing to suffer because she endures which could help him to atone for his sins (Dostoyevsky, 488). Sonya holds up a mirror to the more dark half of Raskolnikov’s personality, driving him to admit to himself that he is “vain, envious, spiteful, nasty, and vindictive” (Dostoyevsky, 497). He starts concerning Sonya, the object of his fleeting hate, as the sole person he has left. His softer area recognizes the righteousness in Sonya and she becomes Raskolnikov’s refuge and the opportinity for his atonement.
Raskolnikov’s “extraordinary man” complex provides with it reckless break down: it traces his romance with his family, severs his connection with humanity, and, above all, leads to the death of two faithful people. However , self-reproach pertaining to his criminal offenses, an underlying devotion to his family, a respectful interest to Sonya, and a longing for human being contact draw the much softer side of his individuality. It is Raskolnikov’s more gentle side that helps him finally escape through the destructive characteristics of self-absorption, find redemption in the selfless Sonya and begin his quest back to the world of humanity. Dostoyevsky, through Raskolnikov’s internal turmoil, proves the assertion that “everyone need to look out for himself” (Dostoyevsky, 574) is wrong and reveals the undesirable consequences of self-centeredness.