The Gestalt Approach to Psychology Essay
Format and describe the principles in the Gestalt method to psychology. How does humanistic psychology differ basically from other studies of “mental disorder”, and what are it is strengths and weaknesses? Psychiatrist Frederick “Fritz” Perls (1893-1970) devised Gestalt therapy.
The phrase “Gestalt” is of German beginning, as was Perls, and means “pattern” or “organised whole” (Gross & McIlveen, 1996). In order to make sense of existence events, our perceptions will be organised in to gestalts. Just like we cannot fully understand a family group by looking exclusively at the people without regard for its operation overall, neither do we understand a gestalt by merely observing its constituent parts. Every time a gestalt is created, there is a focus of attention against a history of everything more of potential relevance. This foreground/background (figure/ground) formation is known as “field theory”.
Whatever is of most interest at any second becomes determine, but if something more important becomes essential, figure recedes into floor and is replaced. In field theory almost all aspects of an individual and their environment are interrelated so that the discipline forms their context. Unless of course we understand a person’s environment, we never can fully understand these people or their behaviour. While Yontef (1973) said “Behaviour is a function of the discipline of which this can be a part. Experiencing is also an event of the discipline of which it is just a part”.
Every field is definitely organised right into a gestalt by the dominant require of that second. As a personal or social need comes up, a figure/ground formation develops with no matter what is perceived as being able to meet the need turning into figure. The cycle of gestalt formation and devastation, of demands arising and being met, has considered several different varieties.
One of the original models was obviously a four-phase process called the “cycle of contact” (Perls et al, 1973). The first phase is “fore-contact” where a will need arises plus the individual understands that harmony has been annoyed. They have possibly excess or maybe a deficit of something and they are driven to regenerate balance. At this stage, the need is definitely figure and everything else is definitely ground. The second phase is “contact”, where probability of meeting the importance are examined.
When out of these possibilities a means of restoring harmony arises, it becomes figure plus the individual goes together their resources to contact number and get over any obstacles that they may encounter. Since the individual identifies more and more with figure, it might be more distinguished from ground. The third phase is “final contact” where individual is really engaged with figure there is hardly any backdrop. It is the top quality of speak to that establishes whether or not the require is met.
In the event contact excellent and full, the need will be met plus the individual may have a new and enlarged sense of self. Good get in touch with is only likely when the specific can keep a sense of identity and significant difference from determine. Perls was quoted in a biography while having said “It is the point at which I actually experience “me” in relation to what ever is not “me”; when I experience “me” as unique from “you”” (Clarkson & Mackewn, 1993). The fourth and final stage is “post contact”, the expertise of satisfaction if perhaps contact has been good and complete. It is at this point that development takes place, although the individual might not be aware of this.
The gestalt closes and balance is restored; the is now at rest, ready for the next need to occur. To make good speak to, it is essential that figure is clear and known from ground. In order to contact form a clear physique, a balanced quality may be divided so that a single end with the continuum may be distinguished in the other. One end in the range becomes figure, as well as the other surface. These polarities may appear to be unrelated but are, in fact , extreme conditions of a mid-point called “zero point”.
When the gestalt closes and the need is met, these kinds of divisions turn into balanced once again. If a require arises and full speak to is not really made, the importance will remain unmet, the gestalt will be imperfect and it will always demand fulfillment. If the individual stays in touch with the need it could still be attained healthily another time but if the postpone becomes a long time the individual will attempt to close the gestalt ahead of the need has become appropriately achieved. Premature seal feels much better than leaving the gestalt available, but the initial need even now unconsciously requirements satisfaction. In this way that experience, physiology and behavior become entirely preoccupied with resolving the unfinished business.
Awareness of the modern day situation is now hindered, making it difficult to help to make contact and meet current needs.