Comparing and Applying Theories of Development Essay
Let’s take a look at all three and compare some of their similarities, and a few differences and then we are able to look at how these and other theories are used to analyze and evaluate the development of a child. Sigmund Freud was obviously a pioneer of his discipline. His Psychoanalytic theory was the first theory of modern psychology. Although some of Freud’s ideas have been thrown away, most of them even now influence the field of psychology today.
According to Freud, man development is definitely shaped by simply unconscious forces that inspire human tendencies (Paplia & Olds, ainsi que al, 2006). Our understanding of the world around us is stored in our conscious head; and the unconscious brain stores painful repressed thoughts, urges, emotions, or thoughts which is hard to access. Freud believed that personalities incorporate three parts: the id, the spirit, and the superego. The id dwells in the unconscious component to our mind and is in charge of our satisfaction principle. The superego also dwells mostly in the unconscious mind and is accountable for our knowledge of proper and wrong.
Accountable for each of our reality enjoyment is each of our ego, which can be located in the conscious mind and is whatever we use to mediate our deepest selfish wants with the outdoors world. “According to Freud, an individual’s behavior is a direct result all three getting together with one another, working together as a team beneath the leadership of the ego. ” (Roeckelein, 1998) For instance, if a teenager would like to skip institution so they will he can party with his friends, his superego tells him that he can get in difficulties if this individual does, therefore his spirit decides to travel against passing up school, although makes programs to get together with his riends that weekend so that his id continues to be satisfied. Freud also thought that kids go through three different phases of personality development in the first 5-6 years of age called psychosexual stages.
In every single stage a child’s completion shifts via oral to anal to genitals. If gratification is usually not obtained in any of those stages, the individual will develop a fixation and ends up becoming stuck because stage of development like in the case of smokers, to whom according to Freud, offer an oral fixation. Freud produced the idea that people create immunity process such as shift (a method by which one diverts their thoughts of anger from the person whom caused the emotion to another person or object), compensation (overcoming feelings of inadequacy in a single area simply by excelling in another), or rationalization (looking for appropriate explanations to justify each of our behavior).
Each uses these systems in order to handle stressful and painful experiences. (Witt & Mossler, 2010) Erik Erickson was an apprentice of Sigmund Freud. He created the Psychosocial Theory of development. He also thought that the subconscious mind inspired behavior; yet , he opposed the sexual aspect of development. According to his theory there are eight stages of human development. Trust vs . mistrust which in turn occurs between birth and about 1 year older.
The child must learn to trust his or her father and mother, but should be balanced with a sensible volume of feeling so as to never become naive. The virtue learned is definitely hope. Autonomy vs . shame and doubt is the second stage which usually occurs involving the ages of 1-3 years old. Next is usually initiative or guilt which is usually takes place in approximately for five year olds. Children in middle the child years go through the industry vs . nferiority stage which will begins around the age of a few and continues until adolescence around more than a decade old; and teenagers fall into the identification vs . dilemma stage.
Individuals in the closeness vs . solitude are youngsters between the age ranges of 18-25. Generativity vs . stagnation is the stage for older adults and is characterized with the aspire to give back. Many people in this level are among 25-65 year olds. Sincerity vs . hopelessness, and expect and hope vs . despair are the last two stages of life development, and they both are for those over the age of 65 years of age.
Each level is like a test having a potential of passing or failing and the outcome farreneheit results can be growth and a learned virtue or stagnation. A person will stay stuck in their current level for even so long it takes until the advantage is discovered although there are accepted age approximations. (Witt & Mossler, 2010) A good example of stagnation is when a girl in her thirties even now acts such as a teenager. Blue jean Piaget, a psychologist from Switzerland, also believed in periods of creation; however this individual focused on cognitive development, generally in kids.
Although Piaget’s theory has received some criticism, mostly in relation to underestimating the cognitive progress children, this individual has influenced psychology within a enduring method. Piaget describes operational like a mental schedule that converts information so that it can be used. Detailed routines are the use of logic by classifying, subdividing, spotting parts of a complete, counting, and reversibility. ” (Witt & Mossler, 2010) According to Piaget, particular behaviors arise only when children reach the appropriate maturational level and that four of those phases exist: sensorimotor (birth-2 years old), preoperational (2-7 years old), cement operational thought (7-12 years old), and formal operational thought (12+ years old).
In every single stage, a kid will adjust to a new scenario by using an inborn potential (Paplia & Olds, et al, 2006) process in which we incorporate new info into a pre-existing mental composition (building blocks of thinking as mental units) known as schemes. (Mitchell, P., 1992. p12) This individual called this technique assimilation. Afterwards if the kid learns something new about a previous assimilation encounter, the child brings the latest information to the current expertise, modifying the existing mental composition based on encounters. He known as this regulation of knowledge hotel.
For instance, when a baby cries, he shortly realizes that only his parent’s respond to his cry and not merely anyone. You will find three key concept commonalities between Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory. First of all, they both fall under the developing perspective of psychoanalysis, which means that they both view development as shaped by subconscious forces that motivate human being behavior. In addition , they the two believed that children proceed through stages of development and that each stage offers omething to learn to be able to grow, or possibly a danger of failure.
Last but not least, they both agree that whenever a stage is certainly not mastered, the likely that they will be trapped in that level of progress by developing a fixation relating to Freud, and according to Erickson will be emotionally stagnant. In contrast, here are a few significant differences between Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory. Firstly, the most significant difference is usually Erickson’s departure from the intimate emphasis of development that so strongly influences Freud’s point of view. Although he wants that subconscious mind influences personality creation, he believed that inheritance and the environment were more influential than sexual urges.
One more major disagreement is that Freud believed which the genital stage begins during adolescence and continues through adulthood. Adults remain inspired sexually by way of a urge to get genital gratification which is the driving force for all of thier afflictions when compared with Erickson whom believed that human expansion is constant, and that persons go through several more periods of expansion after the adolescent stage. Furthermore, Erickson emphasized a possibility for a healthy ego development throughout the stages.
It suggested that individuals have some control over their creation, which unlike Freud, “believed that people spend their entire lives aiming to conquer the requirements of the identity. ” (Witt & Mossler, 2010) You can also get a few similarities between Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory and Piaget’s Cognitive Level Theory. Again, just like Erickson, Freud and Piaget decided that creation occurs in stages and both of them generally focus on kid development. Another similarity is they also have had a major impact on the field of psychology.
Freud was the Daddy of modern mindset while Piaget remains one of the most influential intellectual psychologist. Likewise, their ideas have both received significant criticism, nonetheless they still always influence the world of psychology substantially. On the other hand, there are numerous of differences between Psychoanalysis and the Cognitive Stage Theory.
The main difference is that they the two fall under diverse developmental emotional perspectives, so they actually look at growth and maturity in different ways. Freud evaluates personality and emotional advancement; whereas, Piaget examines cognitive development. One other difference is the fact Freud stressed sexual urges since the driving force for all human beings, but Piaget believed that folks were inspired by the current stage of their cognitive develop. Furthermore, Piaget did not recognize the unconscious mind impacts that Freud considered. This individual favored observable, testable measurements in human development.
Contrasting similarities among Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory and Blue jean Piaget’s Intellectual Stage Theory is a struggle. The differences are more obvious. The reason is because they fall under two individual perspectives in the field of psychology just like comparisons among Freud and Piaget. On the other hand, a couple of deals they equally had happen to be that heredity and environment are important in human advancement; and that existence development happens in stages.
That is the place that the similarities end. The most obvious disagreements are seite an seite to the comparisons between Freud’s and Piaget’s theory. For example, like Freud, Erickson studies personality and emotional creation; while, Piaget tests intellectual development.
In addition , Erickson and Freud assumed that an tremendous amount of development is influenced by the unconscious brain, unlike Piaget whom would not validate the importance of the unconscious. The last big difference is that Piaget’s theory focused on child expansion but Erickson’s theory included four more stages of human expansion which continues throughout adult life. When studying the development of children, we can use the above ideas, as well as other folks to foresee the improvement of the child, and assess them with additional children in their age group. To be able to help children reach complete potential, it is important that doctors, father and mother, and teachers know the regular rate of development.
This is certainly estimated by making use of developmental theories, and then applying research structured studies that test the accuracy of these theories. Since a child grows and learns, a great assessment with their abilities may determine what stage of advancement the child is in, and whether or not they are growing normally. If the child appears to be learning and growing in a slower rate than other children in this current theoretical stage, then ction may be taken to support the child and present them even more consideration through different courses that have been constructed for children with learning afflictions.
However , if a child seems to be developing at a faster rate, then their very own gifts can be encouraged and cultivated through the using accelerated richness programs. In order to consider a child’s development because correctly as is possible, one must consider every aspects of growth which includes cognitive, physical, and emotional qualities of maturation. Physical advancement relates to the expansion and maturity of the human body and head which includes the rise in electric motor skills and brain creation. Cognitive expansion is linked to the progress of logic and reason and increases in vocabulary use. Emotional advancement deals with the introduction of feelings and emotions, although also includes the introduction of morals and beliefs.
Though each category examines distinct types of human expansion, they are not really separate. For instance , advances in cognitive capabilities have been found to overlap with the child’s physical head development and growth (such during human brain growth spurts). Another illustration is that a child’s physical maturity influences his/her mental well being (like when an adolescent is a later bloomer, it can cause them to have got a low self-esteem).
As psychologists analyze a child’s development, they must think about all three aspects of development because of their impact on one another and then apply them to the psychological ideas of advancement in order to properly assess and encourage a child’s conceivable potential. Sigmund Freud was obviously a patriarch of recent psychology and Jean Piaget remains the most influential intellectual psychologist. Side by side comparisons of the 3 theories notice that they are all comparable in some ways, yet also can always be vastly different.
Although Piaget and Freud have received a lot of criticism for ideas and parts of their particular theories had been eventually thrown away, they equally continue to have a significant influence on the associated with Psychology today.