Hiv as well as aids and community nursing staff
Excerpt from Essay:
HIV Nursing jobs
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus (actually a lentivirus) that eventually triggers the obtained immunodeficiency symptoms (AIDS; Globe Health Firm [WHO], 2014). You will discover two subtypes of the HIV virus: HIV – 1 in HIV – two (the agent in the epidemiological triangle). The two are transmitted for the host (humans) via the exchange of body fluids such as by simply sexual speak to, rectal contact, blood, or perhaps breast dairy (Centers intended for Disease Control [CDC], 2014). According to the World Well being Organization (WHO) the biggest risk factor connected with acquiring HIV is vulnerable, unguarded, isolated, exposed, unshielded, at risk sex (WHO, 2014). Therefore, the environment in the epidemiological triangle consists of these human body fluids and incubation period will last from three to 6 months (Hiv Long, 2012).
The WHO studies that 85% of HIV transmission happens through heterosexual intercourse over a global basis and that the different major settings of transmission of the HIV virus will be male – to man sexual speak to, intravenous medicine use (WHO, 2014). HIV occurring in children is often the result of having an contaminated mother (WHO, 2014). As a result, the majority of fresh cases of HIV could possibly be prevented simply by practicing secure sex and/or using clean and sterile needles.
According to the CDC this year it was believed that slightly over 1, 148, 000 adults and adolescent individuals (age 13 and over) were infected with the HIV virus in the usa, with a great incidence of around 50, 500 persons 12 months (CDC, 2014). The fatality rate is usually estimated in 2 . several deaths every hundred 1, 000 people (CDC, 2014).
HIV infects cellular material in the human immune system, especially CD4+ T cells, and also dendritic cells and macrophages. The infection ends in low levels of the immune cells via a number of mechanisms such as direct virus-like destruction of infected cells, CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes attacking affected cellular material, and apoptosis of not affected bystander cells (Hiv Very long, 2012). If the levels of CD4+ cells falls below a major level the host’s cell – mediated immunity can be lost and the individual becomes susceptible to a number of infections that can lead to fatal consequences (Hiv Long, 2012).
Early in the progression in the disease there are many symptoms; however , individuals typically experience generalized symptoms such as headache, fever, sore throat, muscles aches, inflammed lymph nodes, and allergy (Hiv Long, 2012). After one encounters these early symptoms they could abate for a long time and there can be no overt symptoms. While the rest of the disease continues the individual may experience weight loss, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweating, and may as well display other symptoms related to other attacks due to the resistance of the physique be divided (Hiv Very long, 2014). With no treatment the imply survival time following infection with the HIV virus is estimated to be between eight and 14 years with respect to the subtype (CDC, 2014).
Therefore, the nommable disease string of HIV begins with an infected host who also transfers the virus to a new typically via sexual intercourse (although this can also occur by way of blood or other body fluid [e. g., infected needles]). The virus lives and reproduces in man immune cellular material (reservoir) and exits the host via an exchange of bodily fluids.
You cannot find any cure pertaining to HIV illness; however , you will discover currently five classes of medication used to deal with HIV disease:
1 . Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs): This category of drugs, which are generally referred to as “nukes, ” interfere with DNA creation in the malware by obstructing reverse transcriptase enzyme development that the virus needs to build new DNA and produce copies of itself.
installment payments on your Non-Nucleoside Invert Transcriptase Blockers (NNRTIs): “Non- – nukes” also block reverse transcriptase production by acting on the enzyme to alter their function and therefore interfere with the viral duplication process.
several. Protease Blockers (PIs): This kind of class of medication inhibits the virus’ ability to copy alone by interfering with the DNA replication process.
4. Entry/Fusion Inhibitors: This class of medication blocks the