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Culture and Disease Essay

Wechselfieber is one of the conditions that are accountable for the highest mortality and morbidity rates in Africa specifically among kids (World Bank, 2009). In fact , it is one of the biggest public health concerns in The african continent and most with the health courses are directed at prevention and treatment of the disease (World Lender, 2009). This disease frequently occurs among Africans compared to various other ethnic groupings due to financial, cultural, economical and sociable factors. Within a bid to fight this kind of scourge, Africans have been using several strategies to control the spread of malaria and the methods include included both the modern and traditional methods.

Malaria is usually an contagious disease which can be usually caused by a parasite that may be known as plasmodium. These organisms are protozoan in characteristics and they are of several kinds which include Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium vivax (Sherman, 1998). Among these kinds of species, one of the most serious and fatal varieties to people is S. falciparum. The plasmodium is transmitted to humans by the female anopheles mosquitoes as well as its lifecycle involves two hosts which are the individual and a mosquito vector (Sherman, 1998).

In the lifecycle of the plasmodium it varieties sporozoites that happen to be found in the gut with the female bug (Russel & Wolfe, 2008). The female insect transmits the sporozoites to human beings through a bite. These sporozoites move into the human hard working liver where they enter the hard working liver cells and mature right into a schizont which in turn contains quite a few merozoites (Russel & Wolfe, 2008). These merozoites happen to be released in to bloodstream wherever they attack the red cellular material thereby developing schizonts with numerous merozoites. These are unveiled from the red blood into blood vessels where they will invade more red cellular material.

As the red cellular material are bursting to release the merozoites, toxic compounds are released which causes the fever as well as the clinical symptoms that are associated with malaria (Russel & Wolfe, 2008). In the bloodstream, some of the merozoites differentiate into the guy and female gametes which are taken up by the bug from the infected person and these two fertilize each other inside the gut with the mosquito and in addition they develop into sporozoites (Russel & Wolfe, 2008). These are sent to another individual through a mouthful by the insect. Though the primary mode of malaria transmission is by mosquito bites, you will find other strategies that can transmit the malarial parasite.

One of those is blood vessels transfusion following existence of dormant plasmodium parasites inside the donor’s blood vessels. This can associated with transfused person to endure a febrile illness and then for these factors in areas where malaria can be endemic a complete course of chloroquine is given to potential recipients of blood (Kakkilaya, 2006). Another mode of transmission is transmission from mother to child between pregnant women.

These types of parasites complete to the child through the placenta especially if the mom has no immunity (Kakkilaya, 2006). The last method of transmission is through needle adhere injury that can be either accidental as occurs among health-related providers or intentional while happens among drug addicts who also share needles (Kakkilaya, 2006). There are several factors that make Africans vulnerable to wechselfieber and one of those are the environmental factors which usually contribute to spread of the disease.

To begin with, wechselfieber is a environment related disease where it is mostly present in the tropic and subtropic regions. The climate in Africa particularly the annual suggest temperature is mostly within the patience limit of the plasmodium species and this the actual parasite to thrive therefore rendering the populations surviving in this area susceptible (Leary, 2008). Another environmental factor is weather disturbances in The african continent which impact on the mating sites with the vectors therefore increasing the transmission potential of wechselfieber (Leary, 2008). These climate disturbances take place in the form of prolonged droughts and hefty rains. There are numerous social and cultural elements that make Africans vulnerable to malaria disease.

One of those is improved human population in Africa and this has led to swamp reclamation and deforestation within a bid to find more terrain for settlement. The effect of the activities has been the creation of puddles which supplies good propagation sites for the mosquitoes which in turn transmit malaria (Leary, 2008). When the vegetation is definitely removed, what happens is that the temperatures increase and this aids in malaria transmission. One more factor is self medicine where many people in Africa purchase drugs over-the-counter and treat themselves at your home (Leary, 2008).

This has triggered development of drug resistant stresses of plasmodium necessitating continuous replacement of anti-malarial drugs. It has made the populations in Africa vunerable to the disease as instead of dealing with the problem the populations generate more problems by creating drug resilient strains of plasmodium. Additionally , many people treat themselves with anti-malarial drugs that contain already been ruled as inadequate thereby placing themselves vulnerable to developing significant and challenging malaria (Leary, 2008).

Another factor can be lack of expertise on the disease among both the communities and the auto industry health representatives. A study done in 2004 showed that in East Africa people are essential by the Public Health Act in order to the bushes around their particular houses as a way of avoiding the pass on of discolored fever but studies have shown that clearing of bushes creates beneficial breeding conditions for wechselfieber (Leary, 2008). This increases the vulnerability of Africans to malaria disease since successful measures are not taken to prevent spread of malaria. Monetary factors also increase the weeknesses of Africans to wechselfieber.

Poverty levels in Africa are substantial which means that you will discover inadequate economical resources to invest in healthcare therefore making people vulnerable to malaria epidemics. The majority of the populations here live below a buck a day and in addition cases of food disadvantages are very prevalent which makes obtaining food rather than malaria reduction a priority (Leary, 2008). These kinds of economic issues also generate it difficult intended for populations to get good health-related services.

The majority of just go to the private treatment centers or to the neighborhood dispensaries almost all of which have no gear for prognosis thus resulting in inappropriate prescriptions (Leary, 2008). In addition , a number of the medical staff found in these kinds of healthcare features are not certified. The reason why most of the people choose to local dispensaries is cost constraints in which they cannot find the money for motorized transport and thus opt to use cheap means of transport such as bicycles (Leary, 2008). Myths and cultural values also generate Africans vulnerable to malaria.

This is certainly particularly to find the cause and prevention of malaria. A lot of people believe that wechselfieber is caused by witchcraft or supernatural causes and an example is Uganda where the foule here relate convulsions that happen to be a form of malarial complication with supernatural pushes (Leary, 2008). This actually makes the foule vulnerable to malaria since they are unable to take actions to prevent malaria. In addition , due to such beliefs, people who have wechselfieber are not cured with traditional medicinal practises which is more efficient but are remedied using classic medicine which is not that powerful.

This makes the populations at risk of malaria epidemics since the is actually not being tackled thereby ensuring the distributed of the disease and increasing mortality costs. Other people affiliate malaria with certain foods and a good example is usually populations in Tanzania whom believe that malaria is due to usage of maize meal (Leary, 2008). This kind of belief comes from the fact that maize dishes in Tanzania are commonly consumed in times of meals shortages which will occur subsequent too much or too little rain fall (Leary, 2008).

These temperature are also connected with increased situations of malaria. However , the populations affiliate malaria while using food that they commonly take in at that time and so they do not eat maize dishes as a way of fighting malaria (Leary, 2008). This just serves to create them more vulnerable to malaria. There are several methods that are used to regulate the pass on of malaria. Some of these methods are targeted at lowering exposure to infectious bug bites and these include indoor spraying employing insecticides, use of bed netting that are insecticide treated, and use of repellants (Falola & Heaton, 2007).

Insecticides are accustomed to reduce the quantity of adult mosquitoes while materials such as repellants repel insects away from a person thereby reducing the propagate of the disease. Another approach involves take care of the disease using drugs. Even though drug resistance has been a great problem in struggling with malaria, medications have proven to be effective in controlling the parasite within the number thus stopping further pass on of the disease (Falola & Heaton, 2007).

Other treatment methods involve interfering with the mating sites of mosquitoes and these include money of flat water and spraying of breeding sites with insecticides. Apart from these types of methods of protecting against the spread of wechselfieber, the Africa population provides its option methods of coping with malaria. One of these involves usage of traditional treatments. Traditional healers in Africa diagnose and treat malaria using native roots, herbs, and leaves which are generally prepared and taken orally (Maslove et al., 2009).

This acts as a barrier towards the fight against malaria seeing that their analysis is based basically on symptoms and not classification evidence which might lead to incorrect treatment as a result further distributed of wechselfieber due to late treatment (Maslove et approach., 2009). Customarily, Africans include relied on good sanitation practices including proper fingertips of waste and money of swamps as a way of preventing wechselfieber and up thus far their approach remains effective and assists the fight against wechselfieber (Falola & Heaton, 2007). However , this approach ignores mosquitoes as the vectors mixed up in spread of malaria thereby hampering slowing malaria (Falola & Heaton, 2007).

Nevertheless Africans took steps to address malaria, a lot still continues to be to be performed. There is a great need for education on the reasons behind malaria since by understanding the causes of malaria preventive and treatment tactics can be effectively implemented. There is also the need to inform the Photography equipment traditional healers on malaria so that they can work with better approaches in the remedying of malaria. References Falola, To. & Heaton, M. M. (2007). HIV/AIDS, illness and African wellbeing.

New York, NYC: Rochester Press. Kakkilaya, W. S. (2006). Transmission of malaria. Gathered 23 September, 2010 by http://www. malariasite. com/malaria/Transmission. htm Leary, And. (2008). Local climate change and vulnerability.

USA: Earthscan. Maslove et al. (2009). Obstacles to the effective treatment and prevention of malaria in Africa: A scientific review of qualitative studies. BMC International Human Rights, 9(29), 2321- 2337.

Russel, G. J. & Wolfe, S i9000. L. (2008). Biology volume level 2: The dynamic research, volume 2 . Belmont, FLORIDA: Thomson Publishers. Sherman, I. W. (1998). Malaria: Parasite biology, pathogenesis, and safeguard.

Washington, POWER: ASM Press. World financial institution. (2009). Accelerating the fight against wechselfieber: The world bank’s booster software for wechselfieber control in Africa.

Wa, DC: Universe Bank.

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