Psychology and Crime Essay
There are many of other theories produced by researchers including Bandura (1986), Beck (1982), Ellis (1976) and Ross and Fabiano (1985) talking about cognitive set ups or thinking frameworks that lead to troubled or criminal actions. These hypotheses suggest that just how an individual thinks about an external event, not the event itself, can trigger emotions that lead to lawbreaker behaviour.
Cognitive restructuring permits offenders to alter their anti-social attitudes and beliefs by using a process that focuses on the individuals considering patterns. Kohlberg (1978) in the theory of moral development was concerned with the cognitive techniques behind meaningful judgement. He used the work of Piaget (1932) and suggested that moral reasoning advances with age. Offending occurs when there is a hold off in meaning development plus the offender would not have the thinking to withstand temptation coming from offending. (Hollin as citied in Maguire 2002) This can explain for what reason some scammers are seen to grow out’ of criminality. This theory has been rebuked on the basis that Kohlberg was describing moral thinking not meaningful behaviour.
In conclusion psychoanalytical accounts do not give you a satisfactory description of criminal offenses but none do any of some other theories on their own. Psychoanalytic hypotheses concentrate on the unconscious, the industry contributing aspect in the explanation of crime but the theory are unable to explain all kinds of crime. Learning theories go through the values and beliefs which might be learnt through the environment however they do not take into account internal or cognitive factors. Cognitive methods help us to understand criminal offenses but usually do not explain what causes crime.
Cognitive theories focus on the individual and just how the individual can be treated to change. This is why they are in favour with criminal justice at the moment. The theories imagine all offenders are the same however it is only criminal offenses itself that can be described in this uniform method. In order to describe crime all of the available hypotheses including sociological theories must be taken into account.
Regarding psychoanalytical hypotheses Psychoanalytical ideas stress the lining processes and conflicts since determinants of behaviour. However they do not ignore or overlook the environmental or social factors, but they favour the active processes while playing an important role inside the development of criminal behaviour. (Hollin 1989) Bibliography Ainsworth. P (2000) Psychology and Offense: Myths and reality. (Essex: Pearson) Hollin.
C (1989) Psychology and crime. (London: Routledge) Maguire. M etal (2002) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3rd Edition) McLaughlin. At the & Muncie. J (2001) The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (Sage Publications limited.
London) Putwain. D & Sammons. A (2002) Psychology and Crime (East Sussex: Routledge)