Self medication methods in a countryside filipino

Paper type: Fitness and health,

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Aims: the purpose of the research was to measure the factors impacting on prevalence of self- medication practices applying commercial medicines of the Non-urban Filipino Family including its correlation and who one of them experienced no therapeutic impact. Methods: This kind of study was obviously a descriptive cross- sectional query based research. The study was conducted in 3 rural, agricultural countries, municipality in three distinct provinces in which 2 cities were completed around the Location 2 while the remaining one particular was carried out in Cadena Administrative Location. The 300 respondents’ with the study was family in a rural community which was randomly selected.

A questionnaire was approved by the study protocols and was given towards the family and the medical-decision- provider completed the said set of questions with the assistance of the info gathering employees. The data were analyzed using Statistical Deal for Interpersonal Sciences or SPSS type 13. 0.

Descriptive info were portrayed as percentage, frequency and mean. Pearson- r was utilized in assessing correlation the factors. Outcomes: Almost all of the respondents practices self-medication 90.

3% within the family members, the respondent’s profile, wherein majority of these people who completed the semi- constructed and assisted customer survey were females, predominantly were mothers, with a mean associated with 39 years, and generally of them had been nuclear sort of family composing an average family of your five people, many of them finished a college degree, and the most of the relatives earned a variety of ±1001- ±P5000 using a mean of ±4, 476, and vast majority was enrolled in a medical insurance. the most frequently used medication had been paracetamol which usually rank first followed by Ibuprofen, both industrial drugs declines under the category of pain reducers and or antipyretic while the third one was amoxicillin a great antibiotics. Around the aspect of the accuracy of medication consumption, paracetamol, Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost correctly used. Alternatively, most of the commercial medications wrongly used had been antibiotics where amoxicillin was your leading medicine that was wrongly utilized then cotrimoxazole and cephalexin. Fever is the most common health problems prompted the family to self- medicate, followed by headaches and then cough and colds. The families’ understanding and compliance to the commercial medications utilized in self-medication was very good, and bulk were conscious to the indication although not with the non- therapeutic effects. Almost identified their health as most essential and their current health position were in good term. Most of the friends and family intervened thru self- medication in times of disease occurrence rather than attending health facilities or using organic preparations. Vast majority did not knowledge such non- therapeutic results. While the community who knowledgeable non- restorative reactions, mainly both dizziness and epigastric pain leading manifestation felt by the relatives then and then the incident of break outs or itchiness and ringing of ears. The

study revealed that there was an adverse correlation between the prevalence of self-medication with prevalence of adverse effect. Conclusion: In this study, the researchers concluded that self-medication is safe practice of self- care as the occurrence of adverse effect is low and adversely correlated towards the prevalence of self- medicine. However , the revealed number of family skilled adverse effect as they practiced self- medication must not be disregarded for the public health protection will be in danger and in peril. Recommendation: There has to be further examine utilizing a standard gathering device to assist in more efficient end result. Then, there has to be further examine to be conduct to further assess the community, to boost their knowledge about the different undesirable effect of these kinds of medication that they can take without the guidance in the medical group. Moreover, Deductive community input addressing the erroneous using medications to diminish the improper usage of medicine drugs in self- medication practices including appropriate health awareness. Furthermore, a rules or code must be founded to guide the drug merchants protect the vulnerable people.

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

In 1960’s, Self-care and self- medicine was regarded as an needless and poor practice while the traditional or perhaps paternalistic could be the solely lording it over treatment of the person illness and it was thought to be safe and responsible practice. Moreover, the paternalistic way makes the sufferer invisible to his very own wellness to get he will always be dependent on his doctors. But , as medical advancement from the medical discoveries, including technologies, and creation including the enhancement of wellness professions, the paternalistic strategy changes right into a patient centered and disease prevention wellness model which will self-care and self-medication of nonprescription also called over- the ” table drugs was included, accepted and recommended (The Tale of Self-medication and Do it yourself Medication , 2006). In addition , self-medication was viewed as an important pillar of primary health care (Pushpa, R., et. al. 2012) and a common health-seeking behavior ( Yi Wen, N., et. ing., 2011), which will World Personal Medication Industry (WSMI) a non-government firm with Community Health Organization (WHO)

affirms saying that self- medicine as a important component of self- care. William Osler once said “a desire to have medicine is perhaps the great feature which distinguishes man coming from animals. The quoted expression may justify a person to take medicine without any guidance by ideal health sibling such as Doctor, Pharmacist and Nurses this kind of practice is called Self Medicine (Phalke V. D., ain. al., 2003).

This event of self- medication practices was because of various factors. These contributing factors had been perceived of signs and symptoms as minor or mild or perhaps it was a similar with the prior illnesses and treated by same medicines, expensive health facility, accessibility to Health Care Staff, fear of the crowd in the clinic, easily availability and s of medication without prescription (Adualem, T., et. al., 2004; Verma, R. K., ain. al., 2010; Worku, S., et. al, 2006). A report showed that self- medicine practices were rampantly elevating especially to economically miserable countries wherein most shows of health issues are cared for through the stated practice (Geissier, P. W., et. ing. 2000). Centered from the literatures the most common employed medication had been ranging from pain reducers, anti-microbiasl, and anti-pyretics (Shankar, P. 3rd there’s r., et. ing., 2002; Verma, R. T., et. ing., 2010; Worku, S., ain. al, 2006; Sweileh, W. M., ainsi que. al, 2004). While, the most frequent illnesses that prompted to rehearse self- medicine were fever, pain, respiratory infections, stomach illnesses and skin disorders (Worku, S i9000., et. ing, 2006). Additionally, a significant proof of approval to WSMI care in the Thailand is the establishment and advancement Botika ng Barangay (BnB) in the distinct communities as being a program from the Department of Health (DOH) that markets Bureau of Foods and Drugs (BFAD) accepted over-the-counter drugs. Two well-known antibiotics specifically Amoxicillin and Cotrimoxazole, important drugs (vitamins and minerals), medication pertaining to chronic disease such as hypertonie, diabetes and asthma, making medications very easily, readily accessible to faraway communities as self-medication is usually included as being a primary medical care activity. This kind of project target to promote equal health providers guaranteeing the and ease of access of affordable and safe prescription drugs especially to prospects indigent constituents as a Presidential Mandate in year 2001 of Pharma 50 (Cuevas, F., et., al., Public welfare Nursing in the Philippines 10th edition 2007, Publications Panel, National Little league of the Philippine Government Nurses, Incorporated). Nevertheless , lot of studies showed that many of people training self- medication were not informed to the other effects the drug can provide aside from the restorative effect of the medication. Additionally , a study found out that people are likely to mix two the same indication of medicine without knowing it absolutely was just the same. (Verma, R., ou. al., 2010) Although exercising self- medicine had been strongly suggested and has become reported to obtain several benefits it has been associated with a large number of risks such as the lack of suitable instruction from physicians, enhance risk of undesirable drug conversation, drug level of resistance, misdiagnosed and the most distressing is usually an unintended death (Al- Azzam, H. I., ain. al., 2007). “Lahat ng gamot effective pero buntis ka, secure ba? . “Lahat ng gamot powerful, eh walang laman ang tiyan mo, safe ba?  “from Paracetamol Business The quoted advertisement pointing out that every medication has its due to self- medication person may forget that every medication a person takes in contains a component that may interact with other component from all other substances including medication or foods, apart from its beneficial effects, this drugs could cause other results which may create side effects or even the detrimental negative effects which places a person at risk when ever drugs used inappropriately. Assertion of the Issue

A lot of studies had been done in self- medication nevertheless there not any published studies with regards to self- medication practices in a community which targeted group or the source of data is as well as the factors contributing to practice self- medication in using commercial medications of Rural Filipino Family members. In general, the objective of the study should be to assess the prevalence of self- medication in using business drugs techniques of the Countryside Filipino Family and family whom experienced negative effect.

Particularly, it attempts to answer the next research problem: 1 . Precisely what is the account of the respondents in terms of:

2 . 1 . Age

2 . 2 . Sex

2 . several. Position in the family

2 . 5. Type of family members

2 . 5. Quantity of family members

2 . 6th. Educational achievement

installment payments on your 7. Socio-economic status

2 . 8. 1 . Estimated monthly gross family salary

2 . 8. Health care insurance

installment payments on your What is the prevalence of Rural Philippine Family rehearsing self- medication using commercial drugs regarding: 3. being unfaithful. 2 . Commonly used medicines

3. being unfaithful. 3. Accuracy of medication usage

3. on the lookout for. 4. Ailments that prompted the family to practice self-medication 3. What is the medication knowledge of the family who practice self- medication employing commercial medications which includes the understanding and compliance with the medication recommendations, awareness of equally drugs signal and non- therapeutic results? 4. What is the health perception an the knowledgeable prior to illness? 5. Exactly what the experienced non- therapeutic effects of the family as they practice self- medication using commercial drugs taken without pharmaceutical drug? 6. Precisely what is the relationship from the contributing elements: 7. 9. 5. Respondents profile;

7. 9. 6. medication expertise;

several. 9. six. health opinion and experience of prior disease; 7. being unfaithful. 8. and prevalence of experienced negative effect;

with the prevalence of Self- medication procedures in applying commercial medications of Rural Filipino Friends and family? Significance of Study

This research therefore will result to the enhancement of Nursing Occupation regarding with all the self- medicine practices of the rural Filipino families simply by assessing the incidence that can reveal the actual situation of rural Philippine families exercising self- medicine. In addition , through this research it will reveal the occurrence of negative effects experience by the family practicing self- medicine which usually unreported. The current examine will not only enhance the current existing of knowledge although further improve the field by talking about and knowing the relationship from the factors that affecting the prevalence of self- medicine practices in the family and understanding these contributing factors will lead health practitioners to address the condition accordingly, stopping the happening of negative

results that can risk the health status of the community people through educational recognition. Moreover, specialist believe that trough the study health practitioner will be conscious of the weak points of incorrect usage of the over-the- counter drugs that they can founded interventions to eradicate improper used or perhaps correct the incorrect practice. But it will be used to evaluate the plans available to control medication around the country. Related Literature

Socio-Economic Status:

Based from your study of Andualem, Big t. (2004) filing that the self- medication occurs in a wide range of ages over the world, which includes pupils ranging from secondary school to tertiary levels, non- medical or medical college students, together with specialists, urban or rural community, even lactating mothers and adolescence been seen in that prevalence in self- medication had been high ( Almasdy, Deb., et. ‘s., 2011; Boateng, D. L., et. ing, 2012; Banarfee, I., ainsi que. al., 2012). In addition , older adults(more than 65 season old) whom leaves by itself with low-level of education was found more probably to practice self- medication than those who were wedded and with secondary educational attainment or perhaps high school deg (Lam, S., 2011). Additionally , a study simply by Zagreb (2001) point out that self- medication in household was a often practice since 1977. Aside from that, adolescence was identified that the method to obtain drug info was all their parents with regards to self- medication as Allebeck, (2005) and Llyod (2005) revealed. In accordance a lot of literatures that economically despondent countries affiliate to increase frequency of self- medication (Abay, S. M., et. approach, 2000; ) wherein dangerous the dishing out of medication without prescription were widespread. However , a study says the more created the countries the more frequency of self- medication techniques due to the quickly availability and accessibility of medications. With the cross- sectional study by Puspa R., et. al. (2012) which aims to know the frequency and predictors of self- medication in both countryside and metropolitan as sample finds out that rural community clings to such practice due to unaffordability of the overall health facility but they have a positive approval with technical proficiency of the drug-store staff. Even though the urban community have preference that medications should be offered outside the chemist making it readily available. Moreover, Balamurugan

Electronic., et. ‘s. (2010) analyze shows that females and city people more likely to practice self- medication beat males and rural community. With the same study, one of the most reason they will cited was lack of period, perceived small illness and quick alleviation. With the research of Landers, T. N., et. approach. 2010 demonstrates women had been likely to self- medicate than the other male or female. There was the study saying the higher the educational acquisition increases the likeness to train self- medication (Afolabi, To., et. al., 2008). Wherein a study which will compared the medical scholar in initially year with third yr level pupil affirms the above statement wherein they learned that third year scholar more likely to practice self- medication and this event was derive from the related knowledge they acquired and continue to gain both in lectures and literatures however the knowledge they have was revealed to be inappropriate know-how about proper self- medication and including the likelihood of self- medicine ( Verma, R. E., et. ‘s., 2010). There was also a study saying that not having health insurance contains a relationship to rehearse self- medicine (Widayati, A., 20011) H1: there is a great relationship among socio- economic status with all the prevalence of self- medication in the Rural Filipino Family members. Medication Expertise:

World Personal Medication Industry (WSMI) a nongovernment corporation having an official relationship with World Health Organization (WHO) says thru their standard journal that people are mindful and mindful when they work with over-the- counter medication (OTC’s) and not prompted to an over reliance resulting from advertising in addition they claimed that folks read labeling carefully ahead of taking this non- prescribed medication. Aside from that, similar organization recommended that the readily availability and accessibility of medicines even without pharmaceutical drug has helped to educate people to practice self- care. Therefore , independence towards personal health care develops and there is an increasing require by customers for dependable information. Self- medication is included to the initial level of care, under prevention of disease and campaign of well being, thus, training so can lead a person to an optimum health and fitness. However , together with the study created by Handu, H. (2006) revealed that the know-how about appropriate self- medication was poor, plus the study of Verma, Ur. (2010) proves that even professional scholar have limited knowledge about the chance or unfavorable

result the medication they were acquiring. With the same result was reveled with the study manufactured by Balamurugan, At the. (2011) in which majority of the respondent (93%) were not aware with other associated with self- medication practices. Even though the result was found out in the study of Balbuena, Farrenheit., (2009) were clients diagnosed with hypertension were not aware to the drug conversation and contraindication of a lot of OTC’s to their health status case for case in point OTC’s just like nasal decongestant was indeed contraindicated to hypertensive for it can cause even more vasoconstriction of peripheral bloodstream that can irritate high blood pressure. In addition , 68% of the respondent from the study of Indermiitte, L. (2007) were exposed to potential drug conversation between the OTC’s medication and the prescribed medicines. Aside from that, there was clearly a study uncovers that father and mother was the supply of medication know-how b adolescence were all their parents wherein the misuse and false impression of parents toward self- medication were adopted b youngsters (Allebeck, 2005). Another analyze exposed that (Andualem, Big t. 2004), also lactating or perhaps pregnant mothers practice self- medication with no advised of physician where their case were fragile for there are a different medication that may cross the placenta and also the breast dairy which can cause harm or toward impact towards the fetal development or perhaps infant. A lot of analyze exposes that, antibiotics applied were rampant without an encouraged by doctors, inappropriate applied and non- adherence towards the specific serving, length and frequency from the medication were done, in which this can result in drug level of resistance and risk for occurrence of adverse effects (Haaijer, 2005; Awad, et. approach., 2005; Widayati, 2011; Basco, 2004). Sarahroodi(2000), disclosed there is an improper information about junk usage. H2: Low medicine knowledge of country Filipino is more likely to practice self-medication.

Wellness belief and Experienced of prior illness:

Majority of the study gathered were saying the most cited common cause of adhering to self- medication was the perceived signs and symptoms because minor and they experienced that before and were alleviation with the same medication. Nevertheless , the symptoms such soreness, fever, splutters and flu virus alike symptoms which prompted them to self- medication can be misdiagnosed for these set of signs and symptoms were likewise to the

manifestation of major disorders such as cancers. But , in the event these symptoms will not be handled it may lead to further health issues. The WSMI organization as well says that individual consulted 1st to healthcare giver after they experienced that for the first time and if they self- medicated yet the symptoms persisted. H3: health belief and experienced prior illness includes a positive marriage with frequency of self- medication practice of rural Filipino Friends and family. Theoretical Structure

The Do it yourself Care Shortage theory of Dorothea Orem includes the idea of self ” attention which “comprises the practice of activities that growing and adult persons initials and performs with in time frames, on their own account of interest of maintaining lifestyle, healthful functioning, continuing person with expansion and well- being through meeting well-known requisites intended for functional and developmental regulation. Moreover, among her Universal Self Care Requisites says “prevention of hazards to human lifestyle, human performing and individual well-being. The idea advocates independence of person to achieve a unique well- staying thru self- care. Analysis Paradigm

Adding to Factors:

* Socio- economic Position

5. Medication understanding

5. Health belief and experienced of preceding illness

* Prevalence of Adverse Effect

Prevalence of Self Medication

Contributing Factors:

* Socio- economic Status

* Medication knowledge

5. Health idea and experienced of before illness

* Frequency of Adverse Effect

Prevalence of Self Medication

Impartial Variable

Based mostly Variables

Methods

This study was obviously a descriptive cross- sectional question based research. The study was conducted in 3 non-urban agricultural countries, municipality of three distinct provinces wherein 2 municipalities were accomplished around the area while the leftover one was conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region. The 300 participants of the examine was family in a countryside community was randomly selected obtained via systematic testing. A semi-constructed questionnaire needed to gather necessary data was approved by the study protocols. After a courtesy measures done and given authorization from municipal mayors also to specific barangay captains to accomplish the study, the questionnaire was handed to the as well as their medical-decision- giver because representative of the family finished the explained questionnaire together with the assistance of any researcher. Participants were confident that all of the gathered info were cared for with maximum confidentiality. The semi-structured set of questions was given into a member of the family, most likely the medical- decision maker with the family. The questionnaire assessed the respondent’s profile consisting of the respondents’ age, love-making, position inside the family, educational attainment, quantity of members, approximated gross relatives monthly cash flow and presence of medical insurance was gathered. The medication knowledge was measured evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire this involved the family understanding of the commercial medications they will used in practicing self- medications in which contains drugs signal, therapeutic effect, side effects, undesirable effect, contraindication, if they will easily figure out when to take it including its recommended frequency. The belief and experienced preceding illness was measured through a semi-structured set of questions to determine how a family perceives and deals with their well being, and to measure the compliance with current and past medical and medical recommendation. Frequency of Self- medication Applying Commercial Medicines was the percentage that the rural Filipino relatives practicing do it yourself “medication applying commercial medicines, including the most commonly used medications plus the common illnesses that motivated the friends and family to practice self- medication and it in addition assessed the percentage of commercial prescription drugs used, and the medication use of the family if that they used commercial medication indicator correctly or not. Your data were reviewed using Record Package to get Social Sciences or SPSS version 13. 0. Descriptive data were expressed because percentage, consistency and imply. Pearson-

r was utilized in determining correlation in the contributing elements to the prevalence of self-medication using commercial drugs. Results

Table you: The Respondents Profile

Profile| Frequency| Percent|

Age| | |

18-27| 75| 25. 0|

28- 37| 69| 23. 0|

38-47| 65| 21 years old. 7|

48-57| 55| 18. 3|

58-67| 26| almost 8. 7|

68-77| 8| 2 . 7|

78-87| 2|. 7|

Mean Age= 39 years old| | |

Sex| | |

Male| 83| twenty seven. 7|

Female| 217| 72. 3|

Placement in the family| | |

Father| 61| twenty. 3|

Mother| 181| 60. 3|

1st Child| 20| 6. 7|

Second Child| 13| 4. 3|

Third Child| 7| 2 . 3|

Grandmother| 3| 1 . 0|

Grandfather| 2|. 7|

4th Child| 6| 2 . 0|

5th Child| 2|. 7|

6th Child| 1|. 3|

7th Child| 1|. 3|

Little girl In Law| 1|. 3|

9th Child| 1|. 3|

10th Child| 1|. 3|

Sort of Family| |

Nuclear| 193| 64. 3|

Extended| 106| 35. 3|

Quantity of Family Members| | |

one particular ” 5| 185| sixty one. 7|

6- 10| 114| 32. 0|

11- 15| 1|. 3|

Common No . in the Family= a few (5. 14)| | |

Educational Attainment| | |

Elementary Level| 24| 8. 0|

Elementary Graduate| 41| 13. 7|

High School Level| 50| sixteen. 7|

High School Graduate| 56| 18. 7|

Vocational Graduate| 5| 1 . 7|

College Level| 40| 13. 3|

College Graduate| 79| twenty six. 3|

Masters Level| 3| 1 . 0|

Doctorate Level| 1|. 3|

Estimated Gross Monthly Family Income| | |

<±1000| 55| 18.3|

±1001- ±P5000| 154| 51.3|

±5001- ±10,000| 43| 14.3|

±10,001- ±15,000| 28| 9.3|

±15,001- ±20,000| 7| 2.3|

>±20000| 13| 4. 3|

Mean Gross Monthly Family Salary = | ±4, 476. 11| |

Member of Health Insurance| | |

Member| 199| sixty six. 3|

Non- member| 101| 33. 7|

Stand 1 shows the respondent’s profile, where majority of all of them who achieved the semi- constructed and assisted customer survey were females, predominantly had been mothers, having a mean associated with 39 years, and primarily of them were nuclear form of family producing an average loved ones of your five people. Inside the aspect of educational attainment, the majority of them finished a college degree, and a lot of the friends and family earned a number of ±1001- ±P5000 with a mean estimated gross regular monthly family profits amounting of ±4, 476. 11. And majority was enrolled in a health insurance. Desk 2 . Prevalence of Countryside

Filipino Family Practicing Self-Medication Applying Commercial Medicines Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|

Rehearsing Self- Medication| 271| 90. 3|

Not practicing| 29| being unfaithful. 7|

Total| 300| 100. 0|

Table a couple of reveals the prevalence of rural Philippine family exercising self-medication applying commercial drugs. And found away that nearly of them practices Self- medicine using industrial drugs due to it easy accessibility and readily availableness in the community while evidence by simply Pharmaceutical organization including the DOH program instituted Botika ng Barangay to address equity of health in order to its matters were throughout the community.

Desk 3. Regularity of Commonly Used Commercial Medicines and Precision of Commercial Medication Usage Classification| Wrong Usage| Correct Usage| Total|

Analgesics/antipyretic| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| Paracetamol| 34| 11. 3| 5| 235| 78. 3| 1| 269| 89. 7| 1| Aspirin| 1|. 3| 23| 7| 2 . 3| 19| 8| 2 . 7| 25|

Mefenamic acid| 25| almost eight. 3| 8| 26| 8. 7| 11| 51| 17. 0| 13| Ibuprofen| 21| 7. 0| 9| 169| 56. 3| 2| 190| 63. 3| 2| Diclofenac| 29| 9. 7| 7| 114| 37. 0| 5| 143| forty seven. 7| 6| Naproxen| 9| 3. 0| 15| 52| 17. 3| 6| 61| 20. 3| 12|

Antacids/anti ulcers| |

AlMg| 30| twelve. 0| 6| 52| 18. 3| 6| 82| twenty-seven. 3| 9|

Ranitidine| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Anti-asthma| |

Salbutamol| 25| 8. 3| 8| 52| seventeen. 3| 12| 77| twenty-five. 7| 10| Antibiotic| |

Penicillin| 5| 1 ) 7| 19| 5| 1 ) 7| 21| 10| 3. 3| 23|

Ampicillin| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Cloxacillin| 1|. 3| 23| 12| 5. 0| 16| 13| four. 3| 22|

Chloramphenicol| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Amoxicillin| 70| 23. 3| 1| 115| 38. 3| 4| 185| 61. 7| 3| Cotrimoxazole| 54| 18. 0| 2| 30| 10. 0| 10| 84| twenty-eight. 0| 8| Cefalexin| 40| 13. 3| 3| 51| 17. 0| 7| 91| 30. 3| 7| Metronidazole| 15| a few. 0| 12| 10| three or more. 3| 17| 25| almost eight. 3| 19| Erythromycin| 8| 2 . 7| 16| 13| 4. 3| 15| 21| 7. 0| 20| Antihistamine| |

Diphenhydramine| 7| installment payments on your 3| 17| 32| 10. 7| 9| 39| 13. 0| 16| Chlorphenamine| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| | 1|. 3| 28|

Anti-emetic| |

Metoclopramide| 4| 1 . 3| 20| 5| 1 . 7| 21| 9| 3. 0| 24| Anti-hypertensive| |

Metoprolol| 1|. 3| 23| 25| almost eight. 3| 22| 26| almost 8. 7| 18|

Amlodipine| 0| 0| | 8| 2 . 7| | 8| 2 . 7| 26|

Anti-malarial| |

chloroquine| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Anti-motility| |

Loperamide| 16| 5. 3| 11| 161| 53. 7| 3| 177| fifty nine. 0| 4| Anti-spasmodic| |

Dicycloverine| 19| 6th. 3| 10| 13| 5. 3| 15| 32| 15. 7| 17| HNBB| 19| 6. 3| 10| 23| 7. 7| 13| 42| 14. 0| 15|

Anti-vertigo| |

Cinnarizine| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Bonamine| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Corticosteroid| |

Costicosteroids| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Prednisone| 6| 2| 18| 0| 0| | 6| 2| 26|

Dexamethasone| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Cough and colds preparation| |

PPA| 54| 18| 2| 30| 10| 10| 84| 72| 8|

Decolgen| 1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Bioflu| 11| several. 7| 14| 7| 2 . 3| 19| 18| 6th. 0| 21|

Tuseran | 1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Robitussin G. | 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Carbocisteine| 38| 12. 7| 4| 14| 38| 14| 152| 55. 7| 5| Ambroxol |

1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Laxatives| |

Bisacodyl | 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Dulcolax| 3| 1| 20| 6| 2| 20| 9| 3| 27|

Others| |

Contraceptive pills| 6| 2| 19| 39| 13| 8| 45| 15| 14| Renal care| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Chinese pills| 13| 4. 3| 13| 0| 0| | 13| 5. 3| 22|

Salonpas| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Table 3 presents the Regularity of Commonly Used Commercial Prescription drugs and the Precision of Commercial Medication Usage where the most widely used medication were paracetamol which will rank 1st followed by Ibuprofen, both commercial drugs falls under the category of analgesics and or antipyretic while the third one was amoxicillin an antibiotics. Around the aspect of the accuracy of medication utilization, paracetamol, Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost correctly used. On the other hand, most of the business medications incorrectly used were antibiotics where amoxicillin was your leading medication that was wrongly used then cotrimoxazole and cephalexin. The antipyretic/ analgesics category leads because of its indications had been for the normal and simple symptoms aside from their rampant availability in the community just for this commercial medicines were enrolled to the accepted over- the ” counter drugs or also desired as non- prescription medications. Yet , the most completely wrong usage medication were remedies due to the fact that this class of drugs needs a great advice and guidance of medical team on their proper use. Table 5. Common Health issues that caused the family members to practice self-medication Illnesses| Frequency| Percent| Rank|

Fever| 244| 81. 3| 1|

Stomach ache| 163| fifty four. 3| 6|

Diarrhea| 177| fifty nine. 0| 5|

Cough and Colds| 213| 71. 0| 3|

Toothache| 37| doze. 3| 14|

Dysmenorrhea| 150| sixteen. 7| 12|

Difficulty/painful urination| 52| 17. 3| 11|

Blurring of vision| 81| 27. 0| 8|

Vomiting | 40| 13. 3| 13|

Headache| 220| 73. 3| 2|

Human body malaise| 189| 63. 0| 4|

Dizziness| 57| 19. 0| 10|

Skin Disease| 122| forty. 7| 7|

Constipation| 22| six. 3| 15|

Trouble sleeping| 11| 3. 7| 17|

Nape pain| 21| six. 0| 16|

Wounds| 5| 1 ) 7| 18|

Human body pain| 80| 26. 7| 9|

Joint pain| 1|. 3| 20|

Malarial s/sx| 2|. 7| 19|

Table 4 implies the common illnesses prompted the family to self- medicate, in which fever was the key illness, followed by headache and cough and colds. These types of illnesses were perceived by the family as a minor and common health issues occurrence which in turn primary attention as self-medications can relieve it accordingly.

Table 5: Medication Knowledge in Applying Commercial Drugs in Rehearsing Self- Medication Understanding and Compliance to Medication Instructions| Frequency| Percentage| Excellent (5)| 24| almost 8. 9|

Extremely Good (4-4. 9)Good (3-3. 9)Fair (2-2. 9)Poor (1-1. 9)Total Indicate =3. 54| 76109567271| 2839. 920. seventy two. 5100. 0| Indication of economic Medications| | |

AwareNot AwareTotal | 3268271| 1 . 198. 9100. 0|

Non- Therapeutic Effects of Commercial Medications| | |

AwareNot AwareTotal | 105166271| 3961100. 0|

The table five represents the family medicine knowledge in using industrial medication that involves the understanding of the medication and compliance towards the instructions by which majority of them have a great understanding and

conformity. In part of awareness for the commercial medications indication many of them knows about the usage of such business drugs in practicing self- medication on the other hand the non- awareness of the no therapeutic effects of commercial drugs were predominant since the study exposed.

Table six: Health Belief and Experience Prior to Disease

Significance of Health | Frequency| Percentage|

Most Important| 225| 75|

Very importantImportantFairly importantNot important| 502311| 18. 77. several. 3. 3| Total| 300| 100. 0|

Perceived Status with their Health| | |

Excellent Extremely Good Very good Fair Poor Total | 4610114490300| 12-15. 333. 748. 03. 00100. 0| Affluence done in circumstance of Illness occurrence| | |

Immediate medical attentionPractices Self- medicationPrepare for Herbal decoctions| 7818636| 266212| Total| 300| 100|

Table 6 explains the health opinion and encounter prior to condition, wherein vast majority perceived health as the most important in their along with for the most their particular health was is good factor. Moreover, in times that a affiliate in the relatives got ill most of them intervened thru self- medication employing commercially medicines rather going in health facilities or using available herbal decoctions or perhaps other herbal preparations.

Stand 7: Prevalence of Countryside Family Skilled Non- Healing Effects Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|

Skilled non- restorative effects| 127| 42. 3|

None of them | 173| 57. 7|

Total| 300| 90. 0|

Table 7 shows those minor who experienced non- therapeutic reactions.

Stand 8. Knowledgeable Non- Therapeutic Effect Indications Manifestation| Frequency| Percent| Rank|

Fatigue | 27| 9. 0| 1|

Epigastric Pain| 27| being unfaithful. 0| 1|

Rash Or Itching | 21| 7. 0| 2|

Ringing Of Ears| 20| 6. 7| 3|

Persistent Headache| 19| 6. 3| 4|

Palpitations | 15| 5. 0| 5|

Difficulty Of Breathing| 14| 4. 7| 6|

Nausea| 11| 3. 7| 7|

Chest Tightness| 11| a few. 7| 7|

Vomiting| 7| 2 . 3| 8|

Difficulty Of Sleeping| 6| 2 . 0| 9|

Constipation| 4| 1 . 3| 10|

Throat Dryness| 4| 1 . 3| 10|

Diarrhea| 3| 1 . 0| 11|

Scanty Urination| 2|. 7| 12|

Irritability| 2|. 7| 12|

Nervousness| 1|. 3| 13|

Body Weakness| 1| 3| 13|

Vaginal Dryness| 1| 3| 13|

Table 8 displays the list of experienced non- therapeutic effects manifested by minor who also experience these kinds of occurrence, wherein both dizziness and epigastric pain had been experienced by family, accompanied by the happening of allergy or irritation and buzzing of ears.

Table on the lookout for. Correlation in the Contributing Elements in the Prevalence of Self- Medication Procedures of Countryside Filipino Family Factors| Descriptive Value| Pearson r|

Prevalence of adverse effect| Yes- 2No -1| -. 235**|

Economic Status| <±1000 " 1 |

±1001- ±5000- 2|

±5001- ±10,000- 3|

±10,001- ±15000- 4|

±15,001- ±20,000- 5|

>±20000- 6|

| -.055|

Medication knowledge| >21 ” Always< 21-Never| -. 037| Value of health| 5- highest1- lowest| -. 069|

Extent of Self medication| Always- 5Ofteb-4Sometimes- 3Rarely-2Never-1| -. 105|

Table 8 reveals the relationship of the surrounding factors inside the prevalence of self- medication in a country Filipino friends and family. Wherein there was a negative relationship between the frequency of self-medication with prevalence of unfavorable effect. Because of this the more rural people practice self-medication due to the lesser the prevalence of adverse result. This further implies that the self- medication generally practiced simply by rural people is effective as there are much less prevalence of adverse effect they experience from self-medication.

.

Debate

Self- medicine practices is definitely an essential component principal health care since the World Overall health Organization with World Self- medication Industry revealed. Furthermore, the said practice encourages self- perseverance or independence in handling ones’ wellness. Aside from that a qualitative examine about self- medication within a community among vendors in China founds out that self- medicine is an important and common seeking behavior (Wen, Y. 2011). The same examine also revealed that the importance perceiving the manifestation sensed will discover the health seeking behavior of a client. Which means the recognized severity or perhaps the commonness of the felt manifestation will be the basis in how they will treat such symptoms. In addition , if the felt symptoms was skilled before the higher the occurrence of training self- medication. However if they believed it the first time they tend to consult health practitioner and tend to the actual same if perhaps they mistake of what will be given as a remedy or perhaps the manifestation is worsening. As a result, self- medication was attained through a preceding experience of condition and after a session to a doctor (Verma, 2010). Aside from that, medications used by self- medication customers were been utilized and efficiently remedied them.

In the study of Hussain (2010) which should assess the prevalence of self- medication in developing countries in which this individual cited that the physician caters about a thousands of populations thus decreasing the valuable the perfect time to health inform clients. Hence, self- medicine was considered to be cost effective, time saving and important specifically to in emergency circumstances for overall health units might not exactly available or within reach for consultation. Self-medication found being time conserving, economical, practical and providing quick comfort in common illnesses (Handu, L. S. ou. Al 2006). Furthermore, the WHO regards self- medicine as an ideal way to broaden the health finances to a much larger population because of the savings they will remain if perhaps responsible self- medication set up According to analyze conducted simply by James, Holly et. Al (Med Princ Pract 2006) and Relating to a around the world review of client surveys in different countries implies that mild illnesses, knowledge, experienced with the prescription drugs commonly used and common practice significantly increase the practice of self-medication. It is also supported by the study of Abay, S. conducted in GCMHS (Gondar College of Medicine and Wellness Sciences) and Ethiop T. (Health dev 2003) implies that prior encounter, non-seriousness with the illness and availability of medication to pharmacy or medicine shops had been associated to increase self-medication. Landers (2004) said that sociocultural perception greatly affects the behavior of self- medication practices.

The analysis illustrates a high prevalence of self- medicine alike towards the previous studies done in distinct population in the neighborhood in both developing or perhaps developed countries. As potential study of Andualem which will assesses self- medication practices in Addis Ababa concluded that self- medication is widely practice by several population intended for wide spread of illnesses. A whole lot of studies made by James, H. ainsi que. al, Handu, H., ain. al., Abay, S., ain. al., Ethiop J., et. al., Worku, S. ainsi que. al., revealed that the increase in self-medication was due to many factors.

These kinds of included socioeconomic factors, quickly access to medicines, and the improved potential to control certain illnesses through self-care. It was present in this analyze that it is prevalence is affected by prevalent illnesses knowledgeable, previous knowledgeable about the medications, availability of the drugs, attained knowledge about the medications, cost of healthcare, socio-economic status and

common of self-medication practices. Seeing that most of the studies conducted demonstrates that these elements affects the prevalence of self-medication. In accordance to a throughout the world review of client surveys in various countries (1995-2005) that self-medication practices is definitely associated with past experienced in the illnesses plus the drugs. Such as the study of Abay, S i9000. conducted in GCMHS and Ethiop L shows that preceding experience, non-seriousness of the condition and accessibility to medication to pharmacy or perhaps drug shops were affiliated to practice self-medication and it is as well supported by the study. Moreover, this kind of study demonstrated that the approximated family profits per month was amounting ±4, 476. eleven which is fairly small to provide a well your life and not enough especially in times of illness to refer to for medical assistance, thus uses of otc’s which were rampantly available to the city wherein Botika ng Barangay sells lesser cost medicines to provide the marginal constituents of the nation. On the other hand, this current study is definitely consistent to previous research exposing the most common commercial medications use to practice self- medicine (Hussain, S i9000., et. al., 2011 Balbuena, F. 2009, Dagan ain. al., 08; Kardas ainsi que. al., 2007; Larson, 2007; Handu, They would. S. ain., al., 06\; Llyod, E. A, et., al., 2005). This current study implies that antibiotics are included for the topmost medications used in the self- medication practice of rural Philippine families matching to the examine done by Berzanskyte (2006) which revealed that antiseptic use was higher towards the rural as opposed to the urban this is associated towards the high availability of the explained drug about the community. Nevertheless , even antibiotics are rampantly use in this kind of study, remedies rank 1st in medicine which are mistakenly used for the misunderstanding off the proper utilization of antibiotics wherein the thru this kind of study revealed that antibiotic utilized to any kind of illness felt by the family members. Furthermore, some using dental antibiotics mashing it and putting towards the affected location as a relevant treatment especially in the incidence of wounds or perhaps allergic blisters. This event happen due to the low level of medication id of antibiotics wherein the proper identification is an important component to Medication Management Capability (MMC), MULTI MEDIA CARD is the capacity to self-administer the medication strategy, and the low MMC was correlated to poor devotedness to the regimen or non- compliance about its indicated duration of acquiring of such drug, this really is according to examine done by Landers, T. N., et., approach., 2009 which usually

maintained the study created by Sweileh, W. (2004) that just 1/3 of therapeutic dose is just provided increasing the occurrence of non- conformity. The same examine added which a high antibiotic usage the lower they known non- antibiotic drugs intended for even systematic illness was aided with antibiotics instead of medications that addresses the symptoms straight, presence of misconception between usage of remedies to treat viral illnesses plus the study demonstrated that the primary source of the antibiotics had been the left overs of approved medications.

Furthermore, this research showed which the unused remedies from their earlier illness were utilized. A study says that there is lack of right information about appropriate use of antibiotic including it is side effects and sited the fact that failure of health practitioners to supply health education has been associated to the high-risk of utilizing left over remedies. A lot of studies done suggested overall health education for the population may possibly decrease incorrect usage of remedies but a community intervention examine by Mainous, A., ainsi que., al., 2009 says that education can be not enough to prevent erroneous self- medication of antibiotics when Landers, T. F. (2009) added that sociocultural must be considered to assess antibiotic usage pattern. Though majority of the respondents has a good understanding to the medicine used in self- medication a great updated expertise must be given also for changes and fresh innovations arises as progression of technology and numerous confirmed researches were being published to improve previous understanding we have at present. On the other hand, this kind of study also reveals that medication use to practice self- medication does not only involved over- the counter or OTC’s nevertheless also medicines needing of prescription prior to a person can buy. Thus poor regulations of medications occur in regards to rural community. Including those not permitted medication was present in the community in which the confidence of security from this medication is in uncertainty. Furthermore, a whole lot of medicine that requiring a direction of health practitioners are rampantly utilized where drugs this kind of corticosteroids a hormonal drugs if use inappropriately triggers renal and liver problems wherein that they mistaken it as nutritional vitamins for the medial side effects will be increase hunger and bloating so extra weight happen. These types of situations had been alarming that needing to end up being address to make sure public security. The table 4 in the present research complement towards the commonly used medications as offered to the table three or more, this also

affirms the studies made by Ali, A. In. (2012); Alsmasdy, D. (2011), Hussain, H. (2011), Balbuena, F. L. (2009), Berzanskyte, A. (2006) and many more. Therefore the most suitable symptoms are very common and it is the initial symptoms of health problems. Wherein the qualitative examine of Wen, Y. ou., al., (2011) it’s a typical activity to do symptom- centered self ” evaluation, it’s the perceived comprehension of the disease they experiencing then the result of it can be the determinants of whether to self- address or not really. A study simply by Tenaw, A., et., ‘s., 2004 aims to assess self- medication methods tells that aside from informing specific company or universal name in acquiring drugs for self- medicine they explained their symptoms to the person who accommodate as they buy medicines.

Alike with all the previous studies done, this study agrees that majority practicing self- medication making use of the commercial drugs cannot known of conscious of the non- therapeutic associated with medication getting used. The incident of this sort of non- therapeutic effects may possibly due to the incorrect usage of medicines and unfamiliarity of the other results rather than the beneficial effect of medications taken. Moreover the low potential of to self- provide the medication regimen also called as Medication managing Capacity (MMC) as study regarding Landers, T. F., ainsi que., al., 2009 explained. Aside from that, a self- medication consumers request prescription drugs for self- medication simply by describing the physical appearance or characteristic as the study of Tenaw, A., et., al., (2004) declared.

This might contribute the chance of medication distress and an indicator of inappropriateness that can result in errors. This table unearths that there are friends and family who knowledgeable non- restorative effects however not considerably high however the presence than it is still have to address for public secure. These manifestations can lead a person to permanent destruction and at risk to personal injury such as listen to loss, hemorrhage and anaphylactic shock or maybe death (Davis, F. A. 2008, Medicines Guide. ) In addition the ability adverse effects may vary from a person to other.

In the study conducted by 3rd there’s r. Verma, M. Mohan, and M. Pandey, it is stated that the previous experience and with mild illness were more likely to

practice self- medicine. It means that self-medication can be prevailing in connection to their very own past experience of such health issues with a smaller adverse effects in the drugs they will took. Haider and Thaver stated that good past experience with the medicine was the main reason intended for self-medication. In addition, consumer data is a long important component of responsible self-medication therefore client information and role of proper marking was technically approved and released. Position of marking provides all the information for an individual without medical training to use the medicine properly (WSMI, 2010 the Story of Self Mediation).

According to International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), safe medicine is safe with corresponding requirements that drugs used will be of proven safety, top quality and effectiveness and medications used are those mentioned for circumstances that are self-recognizable and for a few chronic or perhaps recurrent circumstances. As the earth self- medicine Industry says such medicines should be maintained information consisting of the method of usage, the effects and possible side-effects, how to screen the effects, conceivable interactions, safeguards and alerts, duration of work with, and when to seek professional advice. Self-medication is safe since it enables patients to deal with or stop short term or chronic ailments as established by the Conversation of the Euro Commission, this kind of suggests that with self-medication sufferers tend to are more responsible with the health conditions therefore familiarizing more their symptoms and its related medications. It absolutely was reported that self-medication is safely used with the findings that people suffer common health conditions and their symptoms at approximately the same regularity, people tend to read the packaging completely ahead of taking a non-prescription medicine the very first time, and people will be overwhelmingly content with self-medication or perhaps taking nonprescription medicines thinking that it is simply effective as prescribed medications.

As stated, dependable self-medication with nonprescription medicines is significantly being acknowledged as the initially line of treatment and as a foundation of public health and healthcare systems thus motivating people to undertake other positive medical behaviors thereby preventing upcoming diseases. Otc drugs are proven effective and safe with medical

involvement supported by many and still ongoing researches and monitored simply by drug regulation.

Conclusion

From this study, the researchers concluded that self-medication is a safe practice of self- care as the event of non- therapeutic results are low and negatively correlated for the prevalence of self- medicine. May be due to the fact that families usually use non-prescription medications they usually use and uses the normal medications for the common health issues they sensed. However , the revealed volume of family experienced adverse impact as they practiced self- medicine must not be ignored for people health safety will be at risk and in peril. Especially which the medication utilized without health professional prescribed ranges by not only to approved over-the-counter prescription drugs (otc’s) but the study had showed numerous drug which in turn need medical professionals order ahead of taking this sort of medications. This may further risk vulnerable people today belonging to the community to occurrence of non- beneficial effects through which can be a harmful if not attended appropriately. Usage of antibiotics should be with prescription in order to avoid bacterial resistance, and so with corticosteroids that affects renal and liver if taken inappropriately (David Drug Information, 2008 ). Moreover, the analysis presented the consumption of Chinese pills bought in the non- pharmaceutical drug area by which these supplements containing creosote, a component through which is possible dangerous and it may harm our system (Mediscape). Furthermore, the explained pills had not been included towards the approved medicine of the nation thus the safety is not certain.

Recommendation

The researchers’ suggest the following:

1 . There must be further research utilizing a standardized gathering instrument to facilitate more efficient consequence. 2 . There has to be further study to be perform to further measure the community, to boost their information about the different undesirable effect of this sort of medication that they can take with no guidance from the medical team. 3. Deductive community intervention addressing the erroneous use of medications to decrease the inappropriate usage of

medication prescription drugs in self- medication methods such as the right health awareness. 4. A great ordinance should be available to guidebook or control pharmaceutical or perhaps Botika ng Barangay. There should be strict examining of the Sari-sari store whoms selling antibiotics without qualified. Appropriate actions should be enforced to those who also violate this kind of law.

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Appendix A: Related Materials Matrix

BIBLIOGRAPHY| MAIN OBJECTIVES| VARIABLES| METHODS| MAIN FINDINGS| Abahussain, E., ou., al., 2006,: Self-Reported Medication Use amongAdolescents in Kuwait, Medicine Principles and PracticeMed, Princ Pract 2005; 14: 161″164 DOI: 10. 1159/000084633| The aims of this examine were to identify and take a look at the design of medication use, which includes age and gender variations among children in Kuwait, and to create the types of information on drugs in this age bracket. | Grow older GenderNationalityEducation level| Method specific in the research: Cross sectional surveyParticipants/ subject: Secondary university students in 10 government schools in Kuwait. Locale: KuwaitData Gathering Tool: set of questions Data Evaluation: Chi-squared test| The frequency of self-medication among the students was 92%. The prevalence increased simply by age coming from 87% between 14-yearolds to 95% amongst 18-year-olds. Sixty-fi ve percent of drugs used were for pain alleviation, 54% pertaining to respiratory conditions, 39% for allergic circumstances, and 37% for dermatological conditions. Twenty two percent of medicineswere supplements and vitamin supplements, 21%gastrointestinal goods, 17% antidandruff products, 15% hair products, 13% for migraine whilst 8% were for athlete’s foot. Pain alleviation, respiratory, dermatologic and locks products had been more prevalent in female adolescents than in men while antidandruff and athlete’s foot arrangements were utilized more simply by male teenagers. The most common causes of information on medicines were parents. The prevalence of self-medication among adolescents in Kuwait has been shown to get high. Self-medication use tended to increase with age and differed between male

and female learners. Few teenagers consult pharmacists on medicine information. This issue needs to be dealt with by the liable authorities in Kuwait. | Afolabi, Um., 2008, Elements Influencing the Pattern of self-medication within an adult Nigerian population. Annals of Photography equipment Medicine Vol. 7, 120-127. | To look for the major factors that influences the pattern of self-medication in a human population of market women in Ifako-Ijaiye part of Lagos, Nigeria. | Self-medicationNigerian populationMarket women| Method specific in the examine: Pretested semi-structured questionnaireLocale: Pen Cinema area of Agege, Lagos StateParticipants/Subjects: Marketplace women in the local government, 205 market womenData Gathering utilized: Multi-stage testing techniqueData Evaluation used: Record package intended for social savoir (SPSS variation 12. 0. 1)|

The patent medication dealers had been the commonest method to obtain information on medicines (31. 4%) and in which they were received (52. 2%). The exclusions were the educated (62. 5) participants who acquired theirs coming from hospitals and pharmacies. Trade and general names (61. 1%) had been common brands means of drug recognition specifically among the well-informed respondents (PË‚. 05). Education of the respondents was the main factor influencing the practice of self-medication though the routine was descriptively associated with the marital status and academic level of the respondents (P Ë‚. 05). Benefits of the practice comes with in the purchase: curing of ailments (58. 0%), keeping time and money (32. 0%) and independence of care (7. 0%). | Al-azzam, H. I., ou. al., 2007, Self-medication with antibiotics in Jordanian inhabitants, International Log of Work-related Medicine and Environmental Overall health 2007; 20(4); 373-380 DOI 10. 2478/v10001-007-0038-9| A survey was carried out to approximate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Test and assess the factors connected with antibiotic misuse. | Pharmaceutical period/timePerception to antibioticsAgeIncomeEducational level| Method specified in the study: Survey Place: Jordan Participants/Subjects: Households (9281 persons) chosen from among different urban centers in Test. Data Gathering Instruments: Validated questionnaireData Evaluation used: Means, Standard Change, Frequency, Percentage| The prevalence of self-medication among the kids was 92%. The frequency increased by age coming from 87% amongst 14-yearolds to 95% amongst 18-year-olds. Sixty-five percent of medicines used were intended for pain relief, 54% for respiratory system conditions, 39% for sensitized conditions, and 37% intended for dermatological circumstances. Twenty-two percent of medications were nutritional supplements and vitamin supplements, 21% gastrointestinal products, 17% antidandruff products, 15% locks products, 13% for migraine while 8% were for athlete’s foot. Pain relief, respiratory, dermatologic and hair products were more widespread in feminine adolescents as compared to male although antidandruff and athlete’s foot preparations were used even more by men adolescents. The most typical sources of information on medicines were parents. | Aljinoviæ-Vuèiæ, Sixth is v., et., approach., 2005, Content of Residence Pharmacies and Self-Medication Procedures inHouseholds of Pharmacy and Medical College students in Zagreb, Croatia: Findings in 2001 with a Croatia: Findings in 2001 with a Reference to 1977, Croat Mediterranean J 2006; 46(1): 74-80| To evaluate the information of home drug products and self-medication practice among medical and pharmacy students at Zagreb University in 2001, and to associate the results to a previous survey in 1977. | presence of the healthcare professionalin the family members or householdextent of self-medicationof a particular drug| Method specific in the analyze: cross- sectional anonymous questionnairre- based surveyLocale: Zagreb, Croatia Participants/Subjects: 287 studentswho inventoried drugsupplies within their family people and evaluated the household associates on medicine keeping andself-medication practiceData Gathering: questionnaire and interviewData Examination used: SPSS version 18, and analysis was conducted with detailed analysis techniques. | In 2001, healthcare professionals had been present in 37% of the selected households (33% in 1977). At least one drug was present in every household. Drugs were kept by a designated place (“home pharmacy) in 68% of the households (65% in 1977). Medicines past expiration dates and/or with goal unknown for the household members had been reported in 27% with the households (32% in 1977).

The most regularly found medications were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) that have been present in 97% of the people (93% in 1977), and were accompanied by antibiotics present in 46% of the households (40% in 1977). Self-medication of NSAIDs was practiced in 88% of the households by which they were located (95% in 1977), while self-medication of antibiotics was practiced in37%of the homeowners in which we were holding found (41% in 1977). | Ali, A. N. et. approach., 2012, Self-medication practices among health care specialists in a Personal University, Malaysia International Current Pharmaceutical Record 2012, 1(10): 302-310| The goal of this study was to evaluate and assessed the prevalence of self-medication practice between healthcare professionals in a private university, Malaysia. | AgeSexField of professionLevel of professional qualificationProfessional experience| Method specified in the examine: Prospective, quantitative, cross-sectional designLocale: AIMST College or university, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, MalaysiaParticipants/Subjects: Teaching HCPData Gathering device: Questionnaire survey formData Research used: Record Package for Social Savoir (SPSS) variation 15| Among respondents, seventy seven. 6% had been practicing self-medication. The reasons were, familiar with therapies (23. 5%) and slight illness (20%) and the maximum practicing participants were 30-39 years (76. 3%). The reason among individuals who did not practice self-medication was risk of adverse reactions (31. 6%). Self-medication practice was more prevalent among medical experts (86. 5%) followed by drug-store and the field of dentistry (70%). Headache (15. 7%, cough and cold (15%) among condition and pain reducers (13. 1%) and antipyretic (12. 7%) among medications induced many respondents to train self-medication. This kind of study reveals very high frequency of self-medication practice between healthcare pros in the local private university. Exposure to drugs, familiarity with their health issues and treatment choice is still main contributing factors. The health-related professionals must be encouraged to enter the patient role. | Andualem, T., et., al, 2005, Self-medication techniques in Addis, Ababa: a prospective study. Ethiop T Health Sci. Vol. 14, No . 1 January | To analyse self-medication, which can be one type of self-care, is a crucial initial response to illness, and several illnesses could be successfully remedied at this stage. To assess self-medication practices in the sampled population of Addis Ababol. This research deals with self-medication on contemporary drugs and it attempts to assess self-medication practices of drug consumers. | AgeSex Educational levelSpecial drug consumersSelf- medicationSelf -careSelf -diagnosisDrug consumers| Method specific in the study: A multi-stage stratified sampling of medication retail outlets in Addis Ababol was employed. Participants/Subject: Convenient sampling utilized to select respondents from among those who arrived at the community medical stores to purchase medications for self-medication.

Respondents had been interviewed as soon as they made their requests but before they were furnished with information on the drugs that they

asked. Data Gathering: Data were collected by using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Data analysis utilized: | Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents says drug customers consisted of all age categories of both genders; as well as pregnant and breast-feeding mothers of varying educational background levels. The most regularly reported health problems that prompted self-medication of respondents had been gastrointestinal conditions, headache, fever and respiratory tract infections. A little bit greater than thirty percent of illnesses/symptoms of ailments were lower than 24 hours and around one-fifth, one or more weeks of duration. The most common reasons reported pertaining to self-diagnosis and self-medication were non-seriousness of the disease, unexpected emergency use and prior knowledge on the medication. Two-thirds in the drug customers requested medicines by specifically mentioning the drug or category that it belongs and 20. 7% by telling their particular illness or perhaps symptoms of health problems. More than 75 different types of prescription drugs were wanted, the most regular category of drugs being pain reducers or antipyretics 30. 1%, antimicrobials (26. 4%) and gastrointestinal medications (17. 7%). Self-medication is definitely widely practised for a a comprehensive portfolio of illnesses or perhaps symptoms of health issues, and for equally over-the-counter and prescription just drugs. The population as well as the physicians have to be well-informed on the scopes of self-medication; i. e., the type of health problems to be self-diagnosed and self-treated, and the kind of drug products to be utilized in order to encourage responsible self-medication. | Awad, et., al 2000 Self-medication practices with antibiotics and anti-malarial amongst Sudanese undergrad university students. Faculty of Chemist, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kuwait University, Kuwait Metropolis, Kuwait. | To approximate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and/or antimalarials and identify factors promoting such employ among students in Sudan. | AgeSex Experienceand attitude| Method particular in the analyze: A descriptive cross-sectional research was performed. Locale: Khartoum State, Sudan. Participants/Subject: 1300 students selected from 5 universities in Khartoum State, Sudan. Info Gathering device: Using a pretested questionnaire on the sample. | Eight hundred or so ninety-one (79. 5%; 95% CI 77. 0 to 81. 8) students from the study inhabitants had employed antibiotics or perhaps antimalarials with out a prescription within 1-2 a few months prior to the examine.

Four hundred ninety (55%; 95% CI 51. 7 to fifty eight. 3) of the respondents explained that they had used remedies, 39 (4. 4%; 95% CI 3. 2 to six. 0) had used antimalarials, and 362 (40. 6%; 95% CI 37. four to 43. 9) had used both. Overall, self-medication with remedies or antimalarials was a lot more common between students twenty one years of age or older compared to those two decades of age or younger (OR 1 . 55; 95% CI 1 . 12-15 to 2 . 09; g = 0. 004) and among pupils attending non-public universities in comparison with those going to public colleges (OR 1 . 42; 95% CI 1 ) 04 to at least one. 95; s = zero. 028). Self-medication with antibiotics followed an identical pattern, that was significantly more common among college students 21 years old or older (OR 1 ) 36; 95% CI 1 ) 03 to at least one. 81; s = 0. 03) and university participants (OR 1 ) 52; 95% CI 1 . 15 to 2 . 02; p sama dengan 0. 003). Self-medication with antimalarials was found to get significantly less prevalent among females (OR 0. 76; 95% CI zero. 59 to 0. ninety-seven; p = 0. 028) and bigger among the 21 years old years or perhaps older age bracket (OR 1 . 84; 95% CI 1 ) 42 to 2 . forty five; p < zero. 001). The most common reason indicated for self-medication was the respondents' previous experiences with comparable ailments. The main source of drugs was community pharmacies. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics/antimalarials among undergraduate students in Khartoum State is definitely high. The findings spotlight the need for organizing interventions in promoting the judicious use of antibiotics/antimicrobials. | Balamurugan, E., ain., al., 2011, Prevalence and Pattern of Self Medicine use in coastal regions of To the south India, BJMP 2011; 4(3): a428 """"""""""""""""-

| To look for the prevalence and pattern of self-medication in both country and downtown communities. | Prevalence of self-medication. Routine of self-medication| Method specified in the examine: Cross-sectional surveyLocale: Coastal areas of south India. Participants/Subjects: Sample size of 200 participants at random from the seaside regions of to the south India. Data Gathering instrument: Each participant underwent a face to face interview with the help of an organized questionnaire; Data analysis applied: Data accumulated was reviewed using detailed and inferential statics in SPSS. | SM make use of was reported by 71% in the subjects, which will ranged from a frequency of at least one time into a maximum of five times and over. Lack of time (41. 5%), minor health issues (10. 5%) and quick relief (10%) was cited as the

most frequent reason for SM use.

Almost all of the participants (93. 5%) weren’t aware about the medial side effects of SM. Findings unveiled females and individuals living in cities are more likely to make use of SM than males and folks in rural areas (P<0.001)| Balbuena, F. R, et., al.,2009Self-Medication in Older Urban Mexicans DíUQS Aflino 2009: 26 (1): S\-iO 1170-229X/09/0001-OP51/S49.95/ | To quantify and describe the demographic, socioeconomic and pharmacologicalcharacteristics of self-medication among a geriatric urban populationin Chiapas, Mexico,| Older urban Mexicans.Self-medication| Method specified in the study:An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. Locale:Chiapas, Mexico.Participants/Subject:A total of 245 older (aged >65 years) residents in the downtown area of Tuxtla Gutierrez (Chiapas, Mexico) participated in the study. Data Gathering instrument:using a conglomerate sampling techniqueData analysis used:Information on self-medication and demographic and socioeconomic variables was obtained from a specific structured interview that was conducted by a single specially trained physician.| More than half of the 245 interviewed older adults (131 [53,5%; 95% CI47,2, 59.7]) reported taking a medicine without prescription during the last 30 days. Self-medication was significantly more frequent among older adults who lived alone compared with married people (p = 0,0274) and among the illiterate or those with a low level of education compared with people with secondary and high-school degrees (p = 0.0036).| Banerjee, I., Bhadury, T. 2012 Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal Journal of Postgraduate Medicine April 2012 Volume 58 Issue 2| To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students.| AgeSexMedical condition nature of illness Pattern of self-medication| Method specified in the study:Cross-sectionalQuestionnaire-based studyLocale:Tertiary care district medical college and hospital in West Bengal.Participants/Subjects:Undergraduate medical studentsData Gathering instrument: QuestionnaireData Analysis used:Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program Version 10 statistical analysis such as percentage, frequency and mean Chi-square test| Out of 500 of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 469 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication.

The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication include cough and common colds as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%) fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelmentics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency.| Berzanskye, A, 2006, Self-medication with Antibiotics in Lithuania Ijomeh: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 2006;19(4):246 ” 53| This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic use in the general population of Lithuania with special interest in self-medication with antibiotics and sources of their acquisition| Demographic Data (age, gender, residence area, occupation, Level of education) Prevalence of Antibiotic usePresence of chronic diseasePractice of self-medication with antibiotics| Method specified in the study:European survey “Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe(SAR Project)Locale:Lithuania Participants/Subjects:General population of LithuaniaData Gathering instrument:Structured QuestionnairesData Analysis used:Multiple logistics regression estimated by the Chi-square and Wald statistics.| It was found that 39% of respondents reported antibiotics used during the last 12 months preceding the study and 53.2% of those used them in self-medication. In general, 22.05% (95%Cl: 19.1-25.1) of respondents used antibiotics without prescription, whereas 45.0% (95%Cl: 41.3-48.7) of them used antibiotics for intended self-administration. Adjustment for all the factors revealed the impact of the occupation, place of residence and presence of chronic disease on self-medication with antibiotics. Representative of managerial, executive and professional occupations used non-prescribed antibiotics 8.38 times, more often (95%Cl: 1.76-39.91, p=0.01) than retired people. Healthy people showed the tendency to self-medication 2.04 times more frequently than those with chronic diseases (95%Cl: 1.11-3.75, p=0.02). Rural people used non-prescribed antibiotics 1.79 times more often than inhabitants of urban areas (95%Cl: 1.00-3.18, p=0.049). Community pharmacies proved to be the most frequent (86.0%) source of over-the-counter antibiotics. Tonsillitis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections were the major reasons for self-medication with antibiotics.The high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics was found in Lithuania. The study indicated the need for more strict control of antibiotics sales and promotion of education of the correct use of antibiotic among Lithuanian people.| Berzanskye, A, 2006, Self-medication with Antibiotics in Lithuania Ijomeh: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 2006;19(4):246 ” 53| This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of antibiotic use in the general population of Lithuania with special interest in self-medication with antibiotics and sources of their acquisition| Demographic Data (age, gender, residence area, occupation, Level of education) Prevalence of Antibiotic usePresence of chronic diseasePractice of self-medication with antibiotics|

Method specified in the study:European survey “Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe(SAR Project)Locale:Lithuania Participants/Subjects:General population of LithuaniaData Gathering instrument:Structured QuestionnairesData Analysis used:Multiple logistics regression estimated by the Chi-square and Wald statistics.| It was found that 39% of respondents reported antibiotics used during the last 12 months preceding the study and 53.2% of those used them in self-medication. In general, 22.05% (95%Cl: 19.1-25.1) of respondents used antibiotics without prescription, whereas 45.0% (95%Cl: 41.3-48.7) of them used antibiotics for intended self-administration. Adjustment for all the factors revealed the impact of the occupation, place of residence and presence of chronic disease on self-medication with antibiotics. Representative of managerial, executive and professional occupations used non-prescribed antibiotics 8.38 times, more often (95%Cl: 1.76-39.91, p=0.01) than retired people. Healthy people showed the tendency to self-medication 2.04 times more frequently than those with chronic diseases (95%Cl: 1.11-3.75, p=0.02). Rural people used non-prescribed antibiotics 1.79 times more often than inhabitants of urban areas (95%Cl: 1.00-3.18, p=0.049). Community pharmacies proved to be the most frequent (86.0%) source of over-the-counter antibiotics. Tonsillitis, bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections were the major reasons for self-medication with antibiotics.The high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics was found in Lithuania. The study indicated the need for more strict control of antibiotics sales and promotion of education of the correct use of antibiotic among Lithuanian people.| Boateng D. A. (2009);Self-medication among Doctors and Pharmacists at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital; a thesis submitted to the Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology| The purpose of this study was to investigate self- prescription practices among pharmacists and physicians of the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital.| Self-medicationDoctorsPharmacist| Method specified in the study:Quantitative cross-sectional surveyLocale: Korbe Bu teaching HospitalParticipants: Doctors and PharmacistsData Gathering instrument:Questionnaire Data analysis:SPSS software| Pharmacists and Physicians are no exception to self-medication or self-prescription. The professional exposure to drugs and knowledge of their treatment of disease remains the fundamental contributor to self-medication among pharmacists and physician, the peculiar demands of their work environment including, excessive work schedules, issues of confidentiality as well as inadequate health care provision for these professionals and their families are factors that further worsen the situation. The higher the practice experience, the higher the tendency to self- medicate| Bradley,C. P., et.al, 1998, Patient attitudes to over the counter drugs and possible professional responses to self-medication, Family Practice, Oxford University Press 1998| The aim of the study was to ascertain the attitudes of patients to OTC drugs.| AgeGenderSocial classesEmployment statusAttitude | Method specified in the study:SurveyLocale: BritainParticipants/Subjects:505 consecutive patients from each of 6 participating practices.Data Gathering used:Likert scale QuestionnaireData Analysis used:Means, Standard deviation, Frequencies, percentage|

There were generally positive attitudes to doctors enquiring about prior OTC use as well as to doctors making OTC recommendations in the consultation.Patients expressed fairly negative attitudes towards pharmacists making generic substitutions and were even more hostile to the idea that pharmacists should make therapeutic substitutions.| Du, Yong, et., al. Self- Medication among Children and Adolescents in Germany: result of the National Health Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) (2009).British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03477.x| The study aims to investigate the prevalence and correlates of self- medication use among non-institutionalized children in Germany, focusing on the pediatric self- medications that are most frequently used | Self- medication Children and Adolescents| Method specified in the study: Quantitative survey method (German Health interview and examination survey for Children and adolescents)Locale:GermanyParticipants/ Subjects:17 641 children and adolescents (8985 boys, 8656 girls)Data gathering instrument: Questionaire and interviewData Analysis used:All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software(release 15.0;SPSS Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA)| Self-medication use is highly prevalent in Germany, particularly among children and adolescents from families with higher socio-economic status. Self- medications cover drugs of all therapeutic classes, but cluster among vitamin and mineral supplements, CCMs and non- addictive analgesics, most of which are used for a short period, either for disease prevention or to treat self-medication in younger children using inappropriate drug use gives potential risks factors.| Hussain S., et., al., 2011 Prevalence of self-medication and health seeking behavior in a developing country, African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 5(7), pp. 972-978| To ascertain the health seeking behavior and self-medication by members of the community | Health seekingBehaviorSelf-MedicationRural CommunityUrban Community| Method specified in the study:A randomized, cross-sectional, Multi-center studyLocal: PakistanParticipants: urban and rural household to ascertain the health seeking behavior and self-medication by members of the community.Data Gathering:QuestionnaireData Analysis: Data were analyzed usingSPSS-17.| Self-medicate was reported in 15.7% of urban areas as compared to 8.3% of rural areas. It is difficult to eliminate.

However, interventions can be made to discourage the rampant practice by giving awareness and education regarding the pros and cons of self-medication, suggesting Hussain et al. 977 measures to prevent the supply of medicines without prescription at pharmacy level, stringent rules regarding pharmaceutical advertising at the time of market authorization and measures be taken to make healthcare delivery much less difficult especially at primary health care level. The health care professionals should also be targeted through interventions to avoid the irrational use of drugs. Policy makers need to understand the drivers of health seeking behavior of the population in an increasingly pluralistic health care system. Raising the socio-economic status through multi-sectorial development activities such as micro-credit, life-skill training and non-formal education can have a positive impact on health-seeking behavior, morbidity and mortality. Eliminating barriers and the integration of health services among public and private resources are imperative for the regular and sustainable provision of health care to vulnerable, under-served group. | Indermitte, J, et.,al., 2007, Prevalence and patient awareness of selected potential drug interactions with self-medication, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (2007) 32, 149″159| To assess the prevalence of potential drug interactions with selected POM and OTC drugs in passer-by and regular customers as well as their awareness of these potential drug interactions.| Patient awarenessDrug interaction between prescription only medicine(POM) and over-the-counter(OTC) | Method specified in the study: SurveyLocale: Basel, SwitzerlandParticipants/Subject:Data were collected in 14 communitypharmacies in the region of Basel, Switzerland Data Gathering: observation of customer contacts and interviewswith passer-by customers purchasing selectedOTC drugs, and telephone-interviews with regular customers treated with selected POMs identified in community pharmacies’ databases.Data Analysis: SPSS| Of 1183 passer-by customers observed,164 (14Æ4%) purchased at least one of the selectedOTC drugs. One hundred and two (62Æ2%) of those subjects were interviewed. Forty-three(42Æ2%) mentioned taking prescribed drugs, and three of them were exposed to potential drug interactions of moderate severity. Out of 592 regular customers selected from the community pharmacy database, 434 (73Æ3%) could be interviewed.Sixty-nine (15Æ9%) of them were exposedto a potential drug interaction between purchasedOTC drug for self-medication and their POM.| Landers, T. F., et., al., 2010,Antibiotic identification, use, and self-medication for respiratoryillnesses among urban Latinos, Journal of the Academy of Nurse Practioners 22| The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which antibiotic and nonantibiotic medications commonly used for upper respiratory infections (URIs) were correctly identified by a sample of urban dwelling Latinasand the association of medication identification with antibiotic use and self-medication.| AgePercentage of correctly identified medicationsEducationKnowledgeExperience|

Methods Specific to the study:Cross-sectional surveyParticipants:509 Household latinosLocale: Washington Heights, USAData gathering: Questionnaire Data analysis:SPSS 16.0 version| Overall, participants correctly identified 62% of non-antibiotics and34% of antibiotics. Seventy three (73%) women in the study reported antibioticuse by at least one member of the household in the past year. Amongusers, self-medication was reported in 67.2% of antibiotics for adults, but inonly 2.4% of children. There was no difference in antibiotic recognition between those who self-medicated and those who did not, but antibiotic self-medication was associated with a significantly lower recognition of nonantibiotics| Le, T. H. , et., al., Drug use and self-medication among children with respiratory illness or diarrhea in a rural district in Vietnam.| To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents in their use of drugs for respiratory illness or diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, and to understand factors influencing self-medication.| AgePerception of the illnessWaiting timeAttitudeKnowledge| Method specified in the study:A qualitative study was conducted.Locale: rural district in Vietnam.Partners/Subject:Two drug sellers and three health care providers, and four focus-group discussions with mothers of children Under 5 years of age. Data Gathering instrument:Using in-depth interviews Data analysis used:Verbatim transcriptions were analysed, and emerging themes and categories identified, using content analysis.| Use of a number of different drugs was reported, including broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. There was poor awareness of side-effects, antibiotic resistance, and drug efficacy. Factors influencing self-medication were perceptions of the illness in the child, waiting time, and convenience, the attitudes of public health medical staff, insufficient drug supply in public health facilities, and poor control of prescribed drugs on the market.Misuse and misconceptions regarding drug use gave rise to considerable problems. Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to illness and health care services played an important role in determining the nature of self-medication. Financial barriers were not the only obstacle to

adequate treatment. Health services should be more accessible and responsive to the needs of the population.| Le, T. H. , et., al., Drug use and self-medication among children with respiratory illness or diarrhea in a rural district in Vietnam.|

To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents in their use of drugs for respiratory illness or diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, and to understand factors influencing self-medication.| AgePerception of the illnessWaiting timeAttitudeKnowledge| Method specified in the study:A qualitative study was conducted.Locale: rural district in Vietnam.Partners/Subject:Two drug sellers and three health care providers, and four focus-group discussions with mothers of children Under 5 years of age. Data Gathering instrument:Using in-depth interviews Data analysis used:Verbatim transcriptions were analysed, and emerging themes and categories identified, using content analysis.| Use of a number of different drugs was reported, including broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. There was poor awareness of side-effects, antibiotic resistance, and drug efficacy. Factors influencing self-medication were perceptions of the illness in the child, waiting time, and convenience, the attitudes of public health medical staff, insufficient drug supply in public health facilities, and poor control of prescribed drugs on the market.Misuse and misconceptions regarding drug use gave rise to considerable problems. Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to illness and health care services played an important role in determining the nature of self-medication. Financial barriers were not the only obstacle to adequate treatment. Health services should be more accessible and responsive to the needs of the population.| Le, T. H. , et., al., Drug use and self-medication among children with respiratory illness or diarrhea in a rural district in Vietnam.| To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of parents in their use of drugs for respiratory illness or diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, and to understand factors influencing self-medication.| AgePerception of the illnessWaiting timeAttitudeKnowledge| Method specified in the study:A qualitative study was conducted.Locale: rural district in Vietnam.Partners/Subject:Two drug sellers and three health care providers, and four focus-group discussions with mothers of children Under 5 years of age. Data Gathering instrument:Using in-depth interviews Data analysis used:Verbatim

transcriptions were analysed, and emerging themes and categories identified, using content analysis.| Use of a number of different drugs was reported, including broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids. There was poor awareness of side-effects, antibiotic resistance, and drug efficacy. Factors influencing self-medication were perceptions of the illness in the child, waiting time, and convenience, the attitudes of public health medical staff, insufficient drug supply in public health facilities, and poor control of prescribed drugs on the market.Misuse and misconceptions regarding drug use gave rise to considerable problems. Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to illness and health care services played an important role in determining the nature of self-medication. Financial barriers were not the only obstacle to adequate treatment. Health services should be more accessible and responsive to the needs of the population.|

Pan H., et., al., 2012, Prior Knowledge, Older Age, and Higher Allowance Are Risk Factors for Self-Medication withAntibiotics among University Students in Southern China. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041314| To evaluate knowledge and behaviors ofuniversity students and risk factors concerning SMA| Older age.Risk factors for self-medication| Method specified in the study:Locale:Guangdong, ChinaParticipants/Subject:a university comprising 8 schools/colleges in easternGuangdong, ChinaData Gathering instrument: Using a novel questionnaire-based data collection instrument.Data analysis used:an anonymous onlinesurvey was conducted with the students of Shantou University (STU), | Of 1,300 respondents (13.8% of total eligible participants), 47.8% had self-treated with antibiotics. Logistic regression analysis identified prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA), older age, and higher monthly allowance as independent risk factors for SMA. PKA significantly influenced students’ knowledge about antibiotics, their uses, and common adverse reactions (all p, 0.05). Among self-medicated students, 61.7% used antibiotics at least twice in the previous year. Community pharmacies were the major source of self-prescribed antibiotics. Reported common indications for SMA were sore throat (59.7%), fever (38.2%), cough (37.4%), runny nose (29.3%), and nasal congestion (28.7%). While 74.1% of self-medication episodes were based on students’ own experiences, only 31.1% of students claimed to understand the package insert. Alteration of antibiotics and dosage during the course of self-treatment was made by 63.8% and 55.6% of students, respectively. At least two kinds of antibiotics were simultaneously taken by 82.6% of students. The majority of self-medicated students failed to complete the course of antibiotics. Adverse reactions were reported by 16.3% of students.Amoxicillin was the most common antibiotic used for self-medication.| Phalke, V. D., et., al., 2009, Self- medication practices in rural Maharashta, India Community Med 2006; 31:34-5| Present study was carried out to investigate the problem and factors responsible for this practice in Rural area of Karad taluka in Western Maharashtra| Self- medicationRural area| Method specified in the study: Cross sectional surveyParticipants/ subject: 515 households in the villageLocale: IndiaData Gathering Tool: questionnaire Data Analysis: Data was analyzed and suitable tests of significance were applied| Majority (63.0%) of the respondents were in age group 36-55 years. As only heads were interviewed most of them were males. 42% were illiterate & majority of them belonged to class IV (43.17%). Prevalence of self medication was found among 81.5% individuals. 48.78% were practicing self medication for last 5 years and 38.53% for more than 5 years. This may be due to increased advertisement and availability of drugs during last decade. Major reasons for practicing self medication were economic (58.5%) or non availability of health care facility (29.3%). Advertisement in newspaper, TV, Radio and magazines were main sources of information (32.93%), followed by chemist shops (25.61%). Major sources of procurement of drugs were chemist shop (36.1%) and other shops (54.18%) including pan shop, grocery shop etc. Most of the users of self-medication resorted to Allopathic system of medicine (73.17%), 9.76% were using allopathic + others and 9.02% only Ayurvedic medicines. We found that 80.49% respondents used self-medication mainly for the treatment of minor illness such as headache, cough, fever.

Very few (6.34%) had knowledge about correct use and only (19.5%) users had knowledge about side effects. Analgesics, antipyretics and anti-diarrhoeals were most commonly used drugs..| Pit S., et., al, 2008, Prevalence of self-reported risk factors for medication misadventure among older people in general practice Journal compilation 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2008) 203″208 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2007.00833.x| To describe the prevalence of risk factors for medication misadventures amongOlder people in general practice.| Prevalence of self-reported risk factorRisk factors for medicationMisadventure| Method specified in the study: Descriptive cross-sectional analysisLocale: New South Wales, AustraliaParticipants/Subjects:Twenty general practitioners in 16 practices recruited 849 practice attendeesAged 65 years and over.Data Gathering used:Data Analysis used: SPSS software| Almost all participants (95%) had used at least one medication for more than 6 months. More than half of the participants had more than one doctor involved in their care (59%), had three or more health conditions (57%), or used five or more medicines (54%). With regard to potential adverse drug reactions, in the last month 39% of participantsexperienced difficulties sleeping, one-third felt drowsy or dizzy (34%), and about a quarter had a skin rash (28%), leaked urine (27%), had stomach problems (22%) or had been constipated (22%). The most common compliance problems were experiencing side effects (14%) and having difficulties opening bottles or packets/applying the medicine(10%).| Pit,S. W.et.,al, 2007, Medication review patient selection and general practitioners report of drug related problems an action taken in elderly Australian, Journal Compilation, 55, 927-934.| To investigate which patients’ general practitioners (GPs) selected for medication review based on risk factors for medication problems and patient’s demographics; to describe drug-related problems and actions taken to solve those problems during medication review consultations based on GPs’ self-report. | Drug-related problemsElderly AustraliansGeneral PracticeMedication review| Method specified in the study:Cross-sectionalLocale: Hunter Region, New South Wales, AustraliaParticipants/Subjects:Four hundred fifty-two patients recruited from 11 GPData Gathering used:Descriptive analysisData Analysis used:CROSSTAB procedure in SUDAAN, version 8.0 (Research Triangle Institute, Inc., Research Triangle Park. NC) | GPs complete 124 Medication Review Checklist. The group that had a medication review had a lower proportion of individuals aged 65 to 74 that the group that did not (40% vs. 56%). The proportion of people with risk factors for medication misadventures was consistently higher for patient who received a medication review; GPs found that 88% (95% confidence interval (Cl) 566-97) of patients who had a medication review had at least one problem with use of their medication. GPs reported taking at least one action for 104 (88%) patients (95% Cl565-97) to

rectify medication problems. Most common action taken were monitoring (55%), improving compliance (50%), dose change (37%), cessation of drug (28%), and ordering of pathology test (26%).| Sarahroodi S,et., al 2000 Patterns of Self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran. [emailprotected]| This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students.| EducationFamilySocietyLawAvailability of drugs Exposure to advertisements.|

Method specified in the study: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicentre study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010.Locale:Iranian University, Iran Participants/Subjects:-The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and nonmedical science universities in Qom state. Data Analysis used:SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures.| 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea, headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%), previously prescribed medications (30.1%), their medical knowledge (13.3%) and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%)Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population| Sarahroodi S,et., al 2000 Patterns of Self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran. [emailprotected]| This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern

among different groups of Iranian University Students.| EducationFamilySocietyLawAvailability of drugs Exposure to advertisements.| Method specified in the study: A randomized, cross-sectional, multicentre study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010.Locale:Iranian University, Iran Participants/Subjects:-The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and nonmedical science universities in Qom state. Data Analysis used:SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures.| 76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea, headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%), previously prescribed medications (30.1%), their medical knowledge (13.3%) and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%)Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city.

This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population| Shankar P.R. et., al, 2002,Self-medication and non-doctor prescription practices in PokharaValley, Western Nepal: a questionnaire-based studyBMC Family Practice 2002, 3:17 This article is available from:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/3/17| To determine Self-medication and non-doctor prescribing of drugs in developing countries.| Practices of nondoctor prescriptionPractices of self-medication| Method specified in the study:semi-structuredquestionnaireLocale: PokharaValley, Western Nepal Participants/Subjects:Carried out the study on 142 respondents. Data Gathering:Questionnaire and InterviewData Analysis used:Analyzed using the z test of proportions. .| >Seventy-six respondents (54%) were outdated between 20 to 39 years. Most of the respondents (72 %) remained within 31

mins walking length of a overall health post/medical retail store. 59% of the respondents got taken some form of self-medication in the 6-month period preceding the research. The common reasons given pertaining to self-medication had been mild health issues, previous experience of treating the same illness, and non-availability of health personnel. 70% of respondents had been prescribed allopathic drugs with a non-allopathic doctor. The compounder and wellness assistant had been common options for medicines. Paracetamol and antimicrobials were the drugs mostly prescribed. A significantly bigger proportion of young (<40 years) male participants had applied self- medicine than other teams. | Sontakke, S. D. et., ing, 2011, Relative study of evaluation of self-medication procedures in first and third year medical students. Int J Biol Med Res. 2 (2), 561-564. | To compare the pattern of self-medication in first and third year medical students and to evaluate if medical trainings results in any change in this pattern| Self- medication practicesFirst and third year medical students. | Method specified in the research: Survey-based studyCross- sectional studyLocale: Government Medical College, Nagpur India Participants/Subjects: 1st yr MBSS College students (2nd semester), 3rd 12 months MBSS students (5th semester)Data Gathering instrument: Open and close-ended questionnaireData Analysis utilized: Chi sq test usingGraph Pad prism version five. 0. | Senior medical students possess a better know-how about certain aspects of self-medication which in turn reflects the influence of medical training. But , even the junior college students who are not exposed to the knowledge of drugs and disease are well aware about the majority of these which may be due to easy availability of information. | Sweileh, T. M., 2004, Self " Medication and Over-the-Counter Practices: A Studyin Palestine, W. Sweileh, J. Al-Aqsa Unv., 8, 2004 | To spell out and analyze the do it yourself -medication patterns and over-the-counter practices in Palestine. | Practices of self-medications | Method specified in the examine: descriptive research Locale: Middle east. Participants/Subject: A random sample of sufferers seeking self- medication at community drug-store was evaluated using a 15-item questionnaire. Cultural, demographic, diseaseinformation and information about drugs utilized for self-medication or dispensedover the counter were collectedData Gathering: interviewed using a 15-item customer survey Data Examination: descriptive statistic

The percentage of patients who were looking for self- medicine study was approximately 60%. Those individuals were mainly males, well-informed, above the associated with 40 and possess a monthly cash flow of less than 200 USD. Most sufferers were looking for self- medicine for pain, dental aches, muscle/joint aches and neck or respiratory or urinary tract infections. The drugs most commonly furnished or acquired on a self- medication basis were NSAIDs, paracetamol and anti-microbial medications. Patient overall health awareness courses and pharmacist continuing education are necessary in Middle east. | Verma, R. K., et., ing. 2010, Evaluation of self-medication among professional students in North India Proper statury drug control must be implemented. Asian Record of Pharmaceutical and Specialized medical, 3, 60-64. | To spell out and take a look at the brand name medicines employed by professional students, awareness, trust in medicine program, reasons behind self-medication, drug information resources, risk findings and knowledge of medicine profile| Self-medication-Professional Students| Approach specified in the study: Questionnaire- based surveyLocale: U. S. Technical School, LucknowParticipants/Subjects: Specialist Students(Young women and men, all American indian nationals, who had 1-4 yrs ago joined the professional college)Data Gathering device: Self-developed, prevalidated questionnaire composed of both open-ended and closed-ended itemsData Analysis used: Described as is important and percentages. |. The research shows that nearly all professional students had a poor knowledge about suitable self-medication even though the knowledge of the rewards and risks was not adequate| Wen, Con., et ‘s. A qualitative study regarding self-medication in the neighborhood among marketvendors in Fuzhou, China, 2011, Health and Cultural Care in the Community 19(5), 504″513 doi: 10. 1111/j. 1365-2524. 2011. 01009. x| To comprehend the elements influencing prevalent self- medication behavior in a community of food market sellers in Fuzhou China, an overall total of 31 market distributors were arbitrarily recruited from six grocery stores in 2007| Theme 1: Hospital-based healthcare was perceivedas having better service quality; Theme a couple of: Self-medication was perceived as a wayto save money and period; Theme three or more: Role of perceived understanding of thedisease; Topic 4: Part of environmental factors; Motif 5: Part of previous experience. | Method particular in the examine: Qualitative StudyLocale: ChinaParticipants/Subject: Industry WomanData Gathering instrument: InterviewData analysis applied: ATLAS software| The effects showed that hospital-based health-related services were perceived as quality. However , self-medication was seen as more affordable when it comes to money and time. Elements promptingself-medication, included confidence understand the health difficulty, the easy convenience of local pharmacies as well as the influences of friends „ peers and advertising. Three broad domains, attitude, cost and effectiveness, were all seen to determine past decisions and experiences with self-medication. Interestingly, the effective management of self-medicationvia pharmacy methods raised particular concern because of perceived variation in top quality. In conclusion, self-medicationwas found to get an important and common health-seekingbehaviour driven by multiple factors. A properly comprehensivepublic overall health system should systematically deal with these behaviours and the pharmacies, where much of the behavior occurs. | Widayati, A., et., al., 2011, Self-medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta Town Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey, BMC Exploration Notes 2011, 4: 491 doi: 15. 1186/1756-0500-4-491|

To check into the period frequency, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors linked to self-medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta Town Indonesia. | Self-me

dication with antibiotics. Indonesian people. Socio-economic factors. | Method particular in the examine: Cross-sectional population-based surveyLocale: Yogyakarta City Indonesia Participants/Subject: self-administered to at random selected respondents (over 18 years old)Data Gathering device: pre-tested questionnaireData analysis employed: Descriptive stats, chi-square and logistic regression were applied. | A total of 559 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate = 90%). The period prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics through the month before the study was 7. 3%. Amoxicillin was the most well-known (77%) antiseptic for self-medication besides ampicillin, fradiomisin-gramisidin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat this symptoms: common-cold including cough and throat infection, headache, and other minor symptoms; with the length of use was mostly lower than five days. Doctors or pharmacists were the most frequent source of details about antibiotics pertaining to self-medication (52%). Antibiotics had been usually acquired without pharmaceutical drug in pharmacies (64%) as well as the cost of the purchases was commonly below US $1 (30%). Earlier experience was reported as the main reason pertaining to using non-prescribed antibiotics (54%). There were simply no

socio-demographic variables significantly associated with the real practice of using non-prescribed antibiotics. Yet , gender, health insurance, and relationship status had been significantly linked to the intent to self-medicate with remedies (P < zero. 05). Staying male (Odds Ratio = 1 . six (1. a couple of " installment payments on your 6)) and having not any health insurance (Odds Ratio = 1 . a few (1. zero -2. 3)) is linked to the intent to self-medicate with antibiotics. | Wijesinghea, P. R., et., al., 2012, Prevalence and predictors of self-medication in a picked urban and rural region of Sri Lanka, WHO South-East Asia Diary of Public Health 2012; 1(1): 28-41| To determine the prevalence of medicine use and predictors of self-medication in Sri Lanka. | Prevalence of self-medicationPredictors ofself-medication| Method particular in the research: In a community-based cross- sectional study Locale: Sri Lanka. Participants/Subject: Data were collected coming from 1800 adults selected by Gampaha and Polonnaruwa districts respectively. Research participants had been sampled by using a multistage cluster sampling strategy. Trained public health midwives administered the set of questions. Data Gathering: Two Likert scales offered information on access to medical care and satisfaction with available drug-store services. Regarding 95% in the sampled population participated inside the study. Data Analysis: SPSS| Overall, prevalence of medication use (allopathic, traditional, home remedies) in urban and rural populace was thirty-three. 9% and 35. 3%, respectively. Self-medication prevalence of allopathic medicines in the metropolitan sector (12. 2%) was significantly above in the rural (7. 9%) sector (p<0. 05). In the city sector, tiny household size and desire to have drugs from beyond the pharmacies predisposed to self-medication. The higher acceptability of medical services and regularity of medical care lowered the likelihood of self-medication.

In the non-urban sector, decrease satisfaction regarding the healthcare providers’ matter for clients, lower satisfaction about cost of health care and bigger satisfaction with technical proficiency of the drug-store staff increased the likelihood of self-medication. In both urban and rural areas, when sign count elevated, tendency to self-medicate lowered. | Worku, S., ainsi que., al., the year 2003, Practice of Self-medication in Jimma Community, Ethiop. M. Health Dev. 2003; 17(2): 111-116| To evaluate the frequency of self-medication among occupants of Jimma town. | Practice of self-medicationPrevalence of self-medication| Approach specified inside the

analyze: community centered cross-sectionalsurvey Area: ChinaParticipants/ Subject matter: 352 homeowners, which were picked systematic- number one ally. Data Gathering: structured and pre-tested questionnaireData Analysis utilized: analyzed applying SPSS/PC computer system statistical application. | Out from the 152 unwell people, twenty-seven. 6% had been self-medicated. The most frequent disease reported to get self-medication was headache (60%). Most of the drugs for self-medication were extracted from drug stores (52. 4%). The relative lesser expense (35. 7%) was the significant reason for using self- medicine. | Ahorrar, S. N et., al, 2007, Self -medication between university students of Karachi: Prevalence, knowledge and attitudes. | To determine the prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self-medication among students of Karachi, Pakistan| KnowledgeAttitudeAgeMedical and nonmedical student| Approach specific towards the study: Cross-sectional studyLocale: Karachi, PakistanParticipants: a couple of medical and two non- medical students of university in Karachi, PakistanData Gathering: questionnaireData Evaluation: SPSS sixth is v 14 and associations were tested using the Chi square test| With the 572 individuals (mean age=21 1 ) 8 years, Male: Feminine ratio=1: 1 ) 5), 295 were medical and 277 had been non-medical students. The prevalence of self-medication was 76%. Forty three percent college students stated that they can alter the program of approved medicines although 61. 9% stated that they stop getting a prescribed medication without asking a doctor. The most typical reason for self-medication was prior experience (50. 1%) and the most common symptoms were pain (72. 4%), flu (65. 5%), and fever (55. 2%). Commonly used medicines were analgesics (88. 3%), antipyretics (65. 1%) and antibiotics (35. 2%). Eighty eight percent of students believed self-medication could possibly be harmful and 82. five per cent students thought that all it was important to consult a doctor before getting a new medication. There was simply no significant difference between self medicine practices of medical and no medical pupils (p=0. 8) The frequency of personal -medication procedures is alarmingly high in the educated children of Pakistan, and is similar in medical and non- medical students regardless of the majority realizing that it completely wrong. We advise that a holistic way must be taken to prevent this matter from rising which might involve (i) awareness and education about the implications of self- medicine (ii) ways to prevent the way to obtain medicines devoid of prescription by pharmacies (iii) strict rules regarding

pharmaceutical marketing and (iv) strategies to produce receiving health care much less difficult. Our examine has also opened gateways for further research through this issue, besides showing that it is real problem and should certainly not be ignored. |

Appendix B: Furniture

Desk 1: The Respondents Profile

Profile| Frequency| Percent|

Age| | |

18-27| 75| twenty-five. 0|

28- 37| 69| twenty three. 0|

38-47| 65| 21. 7|

48-57| 55| 18. 3|

58-67| 26| 8. 7|

68-77| 8| installment payments on your 7|

78-87| 2|. 7|

Mean Age= 39 years old| | |

Sex| | |

Male| 83| 27. 7|

Female| 217| 72. 3|

Position inside the family| | |

Father| 61| 20. 3|

Mother| 181| 62. 3|

First Child| 20| 6th. 7|

Second Child| 13| 5. 3|

Third Child| 7| installment payments on your 3|

Grandmother| 3| 1 . 0|

Grandfather| 2|. 7|

next Child| 6| 2 . 0|

fifth Child| 2|. 7|

6th Child| 1|. 3|

7th Child| 1|. 3|

Daughter In Law| 1|. 3|

9th Child| 1|. 3|

10th Child| 1|. 3|

Type Of Family| |

Nuclear| 193| 64. 3|

Extended| 106| thirty five. 3|

Number Of Family members Members| | |

1 ” 5| 185| 61. 7|

6- 10| 114| 38. 0|

11- 15| 1|. 3|

Average No . in the Family= 5 (5. 14)| | |

Educational Attainment| | |

Elementary Level| 24| 8. 0|

Fundamental Graduate| 41| 13. 7|

Secondary school Level| 50| 16. 7|

Secondary school Graduate| 56| 18. 7|

Professional Graduate| 5| 1 . 7|

College or university Level| 40| 13. 3|

College Graduate| 79| 26. 3|

Masters Level| 3| 1 . 0|

Doctorate Level| 1|. 3|

Estimated Major Monthly Friends and family Income| | |

<±1000| 55| 18.3|

±1001- ±P5000| 154| 51.3|

±5001- ±10,000| 43| 14.3|

±10,001- ±15,000| 28| 9.3|

±15,001- ±20,000| 7| 2.3|

>±20000| 13| four. 3|

Mean Low Monthly Family members Income = | ±4, 476. 11| |

Member of Overall health Insurance| | |

Member| 199| 66. 3|

Non- member| 101| 33. 7|

Table installment payments on your Prevalence of Rural Filipino Family Practicing Self-Medication Employing Commercial Medications Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|

Practicing Self- Medication| 271| 90. 3|

Certainly not practicing| 29| 9. 7|

Total| 300| 100. 0|

Table 3. Rate of recurrence of Widely used Commercial Prescription drugs and Precision of Commercial Medicine Usage Classification| Wrong Usage| Correct Usage| Total|

Analgesics/antipyretic| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| f| %| Rank| Paracetamol| 34| 11. 3| 5| 235| 78. 3| 1| 269| 89. 7| 1| Aspirin| 1|. 3| 23| 7| 2 . 3| 19| 8| 2 . 7| 25|

Mefenamic acid| 25| almost 8. 3| 8| 26| eight. 7| 11| 51| seventeen. 0| 13| Ibuprofen| 21| 7. 0| 9| 169| 56. 3| 2| 190| 63. 3| 2| Diclofenac| 29| 9. 7| 7| 114| 35. 0| 5| 143| 47. 7| 6| Naproxen| 9| 3. 0| 15| 52| 17. 3| 6| 61| 20. 3| 12|

Antacids/anti ulcers| |

AlMg| 30| 10. 0| 6| 52| seventeen. 3| 6| 82| twenty-seven. 3| 9|

Ranitidine| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Anti-asthma| |

Salbutamol| 25| almost 8. 3| 8| 52| seventeen. 3| 12| 77| twenty-five. 7| 10| Antibiotic| |

Penicillin| 5| 1 . 7| 19| 5| 1 ) 7| 21| 10| a few. 3| 23|

Ampicillin| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Cloxacillin| 1|. 3| 23| 12| 5. 0| 16| 13| some. 3| 22| Chloramphenicol| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Amoxicillin| 70| 23. 3| 1| 115| 38. 3| 4| 185| sixty one. 7| 3| Cotrimoxazole| 54| 18. 0| 2| 30| 10. 0| 10| 84| 28. 0| 8| Cefalexin| 40| 13. 3| 3| 51| 18. 0| 7| 91| 31. 3| 7| Metronidazole| 15| 5. 0| 12| 10| 3. 3| 17| 25| 8. 3| 19| Erythromycin| 8| 2 . 7| 16| 13| some. 3| 15| 21| 7. 0| 20| Antihistamine| |

Diphenhydramine| 7| 2 . 3| 17| 32| 10. 7| 9| 39| 13. 0| 16| Chlorphenamine| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| | 1|. 3| 28|

Anti-emetic| |

Metoclopramide| 4| 1 ) 3| 20| 5| 1 . 7| 21| 9| a few. 0| 24| Anti-hypertensive| |

Metoprolol| 1|. 3| 23| 25| 8. 3| 22| 26| 8. 7| 18|

Amlodipine| 0| 0| | 8| installment payments on your 7| | 8| 2 . 7| 26|

Anti-malarial| |

chloroquine| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Anti-motility| |

Loperamide| 16| 5. 3| 11| 161| 53. 7| 3| 177| 59. 0| 4| Anti-spasmodic| |

Dicycloverine| 19| 6. 3| 10| 13| 4. 3| 15| 32| 10. 7| 17| HNBB| 19| 6th. 3| 10| 23| several. 7| 13| 42| 14. 0| 15|

Anti-vertigo| |

Cinnarizine| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Bonamine| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Corticosteroid| |

Costicosteroids| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Prednisone| 6| 2| 18| 0| 0| | 6| 2| 26|

Dexamethasone| 2|. 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2|. 7| 27|

Cough and colds preparation| |

PPA| 54| 18| 2| 30| 10| 10| 84| 72| 8|

Decolgen| 1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Bioflu| 11| 3. 7| 14| 7| 2 . 3| 19| 18| 6. 0| 21|

Tuseran | 1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Robitussin G. | 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Carbocisteine| 38| doze. 7| 4| 14| 38| 14| 152| 50. 7| 5| Ambroxol | 1|. 3| 23| 1|. 3| 22| 2|. 7| 27|

Laxatives| |

Bisacodyl | 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Dulcolax| 3| 1| 20| 6| 2| 20| 9| 3| 27|

Others| |

Contraceptive pills| 6| 2| 19| 39| 13| 8| 45| 15| 14| Kidney care| 1|. 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 28|

Chinese pills| 13| 4. 3| 13| 0| 0| | 13| 4. 3| 22|

Salonpas| 0| 0| | 1|. 3| 22| 1|. 3| 28|

Stand 4. Common Illnesses that prompted the family to practice self-medication Illnesses| Frequency| Percent| Rank|

Fever| 244| 81. 3| 1|

Stomach ache| 163| fifty four. 3| 6|

Diarrhea| 177| fifty nine. 0| 5|

Cough and Colds| 213| 71. 0| 3|

Toothache| 37| doze. 3| 14|

Dysmenorrhea| 150| of sixteen. 7| 12|

Difficulty/painful urination| 52| 17. 3| 11|

Blurring of vision| 81| 27. 0| 8|

Vomiting | 40| 13. 3| 13|

Headache| 220| 73. 3| 2|

Physique malaise| 189| 63. 0| 4|

Dizziness| 57| 19. 0| 10|

Skin Disease| 122| 45. 7| 7|

Constipation| 22| six. 3| 15|

Difficulty in sleeping| 11| 3. 7| 17|

Nape pain| 21| 7. 0| 16|

Wounds| 5| 1 . 7| 18|

Body pain| 80| 26. 7| 9|

Joint pain| 1|. 3| 20|

Malarial s/sx| 2|. 7| 19|

Desk 5: Medicine Knowledge in Using Industrial Drugs in Practicing Self- Medication Understanding and Compliance to Medicine Instructions| Frequency| Percentage| Excellent (5)| 24| 8. 9|

Very Great (4-4. 9)Good (3-3. 9)Fair (2-2. 9)Poor (1-1. 9)Total Mean =3. 54| 76109567271| 2839. 920. 72. 5100. 0| Indication of Commercial Medications| | |

AwareNot AwareTotal | 3268271| 1 . 198. 9100. 0|

Non- Beneficial Effects of Business Medications| | |

AwareNot AwareTotal | 105166271| 3961100. 0|

Table 6: Health Perception and Knowledge Prior to Illness

Significance of Health | Frequency| Percentage|

Most Important| 225| 75|

Very importantImportantFairly importantNot important| 502311| 18. 77. 7. 3. 3| Total| 300| 100. 0|

Identified Status of their Health| | |

Excellent Very Good Very good Fair Poor Total | 4610114490300| 12-15. 333. 748. 03. 00100. 0| Concours done in circumstance of Disease occurrence| | |

Immediate medical attentionPractices Self- medicationPrepare pertaining to Herbal decoctions| 7818636| 266212| Total| 300| 100|

Stand 7: Prevalence of Non-urban Family Knowledgeable Non- Beneficial Effects Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|

Knowledgeable non- beneficial effects| 127| 42. 3|

None | 173| 57. 7|

Total| 300| 95. 0|

Stand 8. Experienced Non- Beneficial Effect Manifestations Manifestation| Frequency| Percent| Rank|

Dizziness | 27| 9. 0| 1|

Epigastric Pain| 27| being unfaithful. 0| 1|

Break outs Or Itchiness | 21| 7. 0| 2|

Ringing Of Ears| 20| 6. 7| 3|

Persistent Headache| 19| 6. 3| 4|

Palpitation | 15| 5. 0| 5|

Difficulty Of Breathing| 14| 4. 7| 6|

Nausea| 11| 3. 7| 7|

Chest Tightness| 11| three or more. 7| 7|

Vomiting| 7| installment payments on your 3| 8|

Difficulty Of Sleeping| 6| 2 . 0| 9|

Constipation| 4| 1 . 3| 10|

Neck Dryness| 4| 1 . 3| 10|

Diarrhea| 3| 1 . 0| 11|

Scanty Urination| 2|. 7| 12|

Irritability| 2|. 7| 12|

Nervousness| 1|. 3| 13|

Body Weakness| 1| 3| 13|

Vaginal Dryness| 1| 3| 13|

Desk 9. Correlation of the Surrounding Factors inside the Prevalence of Self- Medication Practices of Rural Filipino Family Factors| Descriptive Value| Pearson r|

Prevalence of non- therapeutic effects| Yes- 2No -1| -. 235**| Economical Status| <±1000 " 1 |

±1001- ±5000- 2|

±5001- ±10,000- 3|

±10,001- ±15000- 4|

±15,001- ±20,000- 5|

>±20000- 6|

| -.055|

Medication knowledge| >twenty one ” Often< 21-Never| -. 037| Value of health| 5- highest1- lowest| -. 069|

Level of Personal medication| Always- 5Ofteb-4Sometimes- 3Rarely-2Never-1| -. 105|

Appendix C: Research Gathering Tool

Special Respondents

All of us, the BING graduate students are presently undertaking a study about of self-medication methods. May all of us solicit the responses with regards to factors that affecting the prevalence of self-medication of Rural Filipino Family. Be confident, the data will be treated with utmost confidentiality. Thank you!

The Researchers

SET OF QUESTIONS

Component I. Appartenente Economic Position: Please tick (/) which in turn correspond your answer and fill up the blank accordingly.

¢Age:

¢Sex: ( ) Male ( ) Female

¢Position in the Family: ( ) Dad ( ) Mother ( ) very first Child

( ) 2nd kid ( ) 3rd ( ) other folks:

¢Type of Relatives: ( ) Nuclear ( ) Extended

¢Number of Family members:

¢Educational attainment: ( ) Doctorate level ( ) Business level

( ) Masters level( ) High school graduation l Graduate student

( ) School Graduate( ) High School level

( ) University level( ) Elementary Graduate student

( ) Professional Graduate ( ) Primary level

¢Estimated Month to month Gross Friends and family income:

( ) 1000php below( ) one thousand php ” 5000 php( ) 6th, 000 php ” 15, 000php

( ) 11, 000php ” 12-15, 000php( ) 15, 000php- 20, 000php( ) 20, 000php over

¢Member of health insurance: ( ) Yes( ) No

Part 2. Medication Expertise. Please tick (/) which in turn correspond your answer and fill up the blank consequently.

1 . Will the family know very well what for the medication/s considered without pharmaceutical drug? ( ) Yes ( ) Zero

installment payments on your Does the relatives know the negative effects of the medication/s taken w/o prescription?

( ) Yes ( ) Zero

several. Is it possible for the relatives to understand the instruction around the label from the medication?

( ) Always( )Often( )Sometimes( )Rarely ( )Never

4. Would it be easy for the family to consider medication on time and capable of complete the size of taking medicine?

( ) Always( )Often( )Sometimes( )Rarely ( )Never

5. Would it be easy for the family might the pharmacist question of the medication?

( ) Always( )Often( )Sometimes( )Rarely ( )Never 6. Could it be easy for the family to comprehend the pharmacist’s instruction in the medication?

( ) Always( )Often( )Sometimes( )Rarely ( )Never

7. It really is easy for the family to get all the information we need regarding the medicine?

( ) Always( )Often( )Sometimes( )Rarely ( )Never

Part III. Health idea and Connection with prior illness. Please tick (/) which in turn correspond the answer and fill up the blank accordingly.

1 . When ever someone bought illness, so what do the relatives do?

( ) seek for medical attention( ) self-medicating ( ) do herbal medicines

2 . Please check all the illness that prompted the family to rehearse self-medication?

( ) fever( ) dizziness( ) wounds

( ) stomach ache( ) body system malaise( ) nape discomfort

( ) diarrhea( ) vomiting( ) trouble sleeping

( ) cough and colds ( ) headache( ) congestion

( ) difficulty or painful urination( ) toothache( ) blurring of vision

( ) skin diseases( ) dysmenorrhea( ) various other.

a few. How do you worth health? Kindly rank this, 5 because highest and 1 as lowest..

4. On the whole, would you claim your health is usually? Please choose one response.

( ) Excellent( ) Very Good( )Good( )Fair ( )Poor

Portion IV. Degree of self-medication practices. You should answer the following by adding letter of choices in the space provided.

1 ) Have you and also other member/s used medication without prescription? ( ) Yes ( ) No

2 . How often you and different member/s used medication without prescription?

( ) Always( ) Often( ) Sometimes( )Rarely( )Never

3. You should select from steering column A the drug/s utilized without pharmaceutical, if the drug/s is certainly not indicated in column A, please stipulate. Identify by column M what for is/are the drug/s.

AB

a. Antipyretic (for fever)

b. anti-motility

c. anti- ulcer

d. antiseptic

elizabeth. antacid

f. nose congestant

g. mucolytic

l. anti-asthma

i. junk

t. antitussive

k. anti- allergy

l. anti constipation

m. anti hypertension

n. birth control method pills

o. anti-spasmodic

g. anticholinergic

q. corticosteroid

3rd there’s r. others(specify)__________

h. Antipyretic (for fever)

t. anti-motility

u. anti- ulcer

v. antibiotic

w. antacid

times. nasal congestant

con. mucolytic

z. anti-asthma

. antitussive

. anti- allergy

~. anti obstipation

. anti hypertonie

. birth control method pills

. anti-spasmodic

. anticholinergic

. corticosteroid

. others(specify)__________

1 ) paracetamol

2 . Carbocisteine

several. Salbutamol

4. Mefenamic acid

5. Cefalexin

6th. Amoxicillin

7. Cotrimoxazole

eight. Diphenhydramine

9. Ibuprofen

12. Diatabs

11. Almg

12. Neozep

13. Buscopan

14. Metoprolol

15. Contraceptive pills

16. Metronidazole

seventeen. Erythromycin

18. Diclofenac

19. Metoclopramide

20. Acetylsalicylsäure

21 years old. Amlodipine

22. Bioflu

23. Prednisone

24. Dulcolax

25. Cloxacillin

26. Others(specify) ________

Part V. Frequency of Negative Reaction Skilled of the Relatives.. Please tick (/) which in turn correspond your answer and fill up the blank accordingly. 1 . Will the family experience adverse effect/s due to choosing medication devoid of prescription? ( ) Certainly ( )No

If yes, you should check or tick the experienced adverse result listed below:

( ) consistent headache

( ) rash/ itchiness

( ) Problems upon breathing

( ) dizziness

( ) tremors

( ) lowered libido

( ) nausea

( ) edema

( ) vaginal dryness

( ) vomiting

( ) epigastric soreness

( ) upper body tightness

( ) difficulty upon sleeping

( ) ringing of ears

( ) flushing

( ) constipation

( ) diarrhea

( ) others

Appendix D- Curriculum Vitae

PERSONAL INFO

Identity: Elaiza Happiness M. Claravall

Treat: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Mobile numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Date of Birth: November 27, 1991

Place of Birth: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sexual intercourse: Female

Civil Status: Single

e-mail: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Graduate School: Experts of Scientific research in NursingJune 2012- present

Key in Mature health Nursing

College or university of St . Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelor of Science in NursingS. Sumado a 2007-2011

Medical Schools of Upper Philippines

Alimanao Slopes, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Secondary: Caiguian Burgos National High SchoolS. Con 2003- 2007

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Principal: Burgos Central SchoolS. Sumado a 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

CIVIL ASSISTANCE ELIGIBILITY

* Nursing jobs Licensure Evaluation July two to three, 2011

Board Passer

JOB HISTORY

5. Part time Educator April 6, 2013 to present

Thinker Tutor Property

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

* RNheals Nurse 03 22, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Elaiza Joy M. Claravall

Address: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Contact Numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Day of Birth: November 28, 1991

Place of Beginning: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sex: Feminine

Detrimental Status: Solitary

e-mail: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Graduate College: Masters of Science in NursingJune 2012- present

Major in Adult overall health Nursing

University of Saint Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao Metropolis, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelors of Technology in NursingS. Y 2007-2011

Medical Colleges of Northern Philippines

Alimanao Hills, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Secondary: Caiguian Burgos Countrywide High Educational institutions. Y 2003- 2007

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Primary: Burgos Central Educational institutions. Y 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

CIVIL SERVICE ELIGIBILITY

* Nursing Licensure Examination September 2-3, 2011

Panel Passer

WORK EXPERIENCE

* Part time Teacher 04 6, 2013 to present

Thinker Guitar tutor House

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

2. RNheals Health professional March twenty two, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

PERSONAL INFO

Term: Elaiza Delight M. Claravall

Addresses: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Contact Numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Date of Birth: November 27, 1991

Host to Birth: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sexual intercourse: Female

Civil Status: Single

e-mail: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL BACKDROP

Graduate student School: Masters of Science in NursingJune 2012- present

Key in Mature health Breastfeeding

College or university of St . Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelor of Science in NursingS. Sumado a 2007-2011

Medical Universities of Northern Philippines

Alimanao Hills, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Second: Caiguian Burgos National Substantial SchoolS. Sumado a 2003- 3 years ago

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Principal: Burgos Central SchoolS. Y 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

CIVIL ASSISTANCE ELIGIBILITY

* Breastfeeding Licensure Assessment July 2 – 3, 2011

Board Traverser

WORK EXPERIENCE

5. Part time Educator April 6th, 2013 to provide

Thinker Tutor Residence

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

* RNheals Nurse Mar 22, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Elaiza Joy Meters. Claravall

Address: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Contact Numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Time of Delivery: November 27, 1991

Place of Beginning: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sex: Girl

Detrimental Status: Sole

email-based: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Graduate School: Masters of Science in NursingJune 2012- present

Major in Adult wellness Nursing

University of Saint Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao Town, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelors of Science in NursingS. Y 2007-2011

Medical Colleges of Northern Thailand

Alimanao Hills, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Secondary: Caiguian Burgos National High Educational institutions. Y 2003- 2007

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Primary: Burgos Central Educational institutions. Y 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

DETRIMENTAL SERVICE MEMBERSHIP

* Nursing Licensure Examination Come july 1st 2-3, 2011

Panel Passer

WORK EXPERIENCE

* Part time Teacher April 6, 2013 to present

Thinker Guitar tutor House

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

5. RNheals Doctor March 22, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

PERSONAL INFO

Term: Elaiza Delight M. Claravall

Address: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Contact Numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Date of Birth: November 27, 1991

Place of Birth: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sexual: Female

Civil Position: Single

e-mail: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL HISTORY

Graduate School: Masters of Technology in NursingJune 2012- present

Major in Adult health Medical

School of Saint Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelor of Science in NursingS. Con 2007-2011

Medical Educational institutions of North Philippines

Alimanao Slopes, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Supplementary: Caiguian Burgos National Large SchoolS. Con 2003- 2007

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Major: Burgos Central SchoolS. Y 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

CIVIL SERVICE ELIGIBILITY

* Medical Licensure Assessment July 2-3, 2011

Board Traverser

WORK EXPERIENCE

* Part time Tutor April 6, 2013 to present

Thinker Tutor Residence

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

* RNheals Nurse Mar 22, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

PERSONAL DATA

Name: Elaiza Joy M. Claravall

Address: San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

Contact Numbers: (Mobile) 0905741882/ 0927920887

Day of Beginning: November 28, 1991

Place of Delivery: Maligaya, Tumauini, Isabela

Sex: Woman

Detrimental Status: Sole

e-mail: [emailprotected]

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Graduate Institution: Masters of Science in NursingJune 2012- present

Major in Adult well being Nursing

University of Saint Luis Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao Town, Cagayan

Tertiary: Bachelors of Science in NursingS. Y 2007-2011

Medical Colleges of Northern Thailand

Alimanao Hills, Peñablanca, Cagayan

Secondary: Caiguian Burgos Countrywide High Colleges. Y 2003- 2007

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

Primary: Burgos Central Universities. Y 1997-2003

Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela

DETRIMENTAL SERVICE MEMBERSHIP AND ENROLLMENT

5. Nursing Licensure Examination September 2-3, 2011

Table Passer

WORK EXPERIENCE

* In your free time Teacher April 6, 2013 to present

Thinker Guitar tutor House

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

5. RNheals Nurse March twenty two, 2012- 2013

RHU- Burgos

San Antonino, Burgos, Isabela

one particular

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