The Impact of Classroom Technology on Student Behavior Essay
Angeline M. Lavin University of South Dakota Leon Korte University of South Dakota Thomas M. Davies University of South Dakota SUMMARY The trend toward technology increased classrooms provides escalated quickly during the past five years since students have become increasingly tech-savvy.
Classrooms throughout the nation are becoming “wired” and textbook marketers now offer a wide variety of electronic teaching products. In fact , a lot of may argue that technology is currently expected in the college class. The objective of this research is to examine whether the make use of technology in university classes impacts pupil behavior and student awareness of educational quality. This paper summarizes the outcomes of a review administered to students signed up for business classes at a mid-sized Midwestern university. The results suggest that adding technology in classes where it is not necessarily currently utilized is likely to possess a positive effect on student perceptions of the trainer and on student behavior.
Yet , removing technology from classes that previously use it would not appear to possess a negative impact on all aspects of student patterns. Overall there are particular aspects of student behavior (the amount of time that students study, the quantity of notes they take, their very own attendance, and their interaction with all the instructor) which appear to be technology neutral. As opposed, technology tends to have a meaningful impact on student planning for school, attentiveness, top quality of notes considered, student participation in class, student learning, aspire to take further classes from your instructor or perhaps in the topic, and the general evaluation with the course and the instructor.
Keywords: class technology, instructional top quality, student habit, student perceptions The impact of classroom technology, Page you Journal of Technology Analysis INTRODUCTION Technology, it seems, can be everywhere today. As pcs have become more commonplace, the utilization of information technology is becoming pervasive in most everyone’s lives. For most of us, it is hard to graphic daily life with no influence of technological devices, be it portable video games, personal digital co-workers, cell phones or any number of computers. This is especially true intended for younger generations.
In academia, we have likely reached the stage where the use of technology is predicted, by both students and their parents (Christensen, 1999). Fashionable toward technology enhanced classes has escalated quickly during the past five years as pupils have become progressively tech-savvy, classes across the region have become “wired” and textbook publishers today offer a wide selection of computerized teaching supplements. Lowerison, Sclater, Schmid, and Abrami (2006) suggest that technology has got the potential to convert the learning environment from unaggressive to effective and more controlled by the charge of the learner.
According to Roblyer (2003), technology may possibly enable the learner to become more positively involved in his / her own learning. While technology may improve the classroom and have interaction today’s pupil more effectively, many do not believe it replaces the need for a structured, content-driving learning process that is grounded in theory. To be effective, technology-based tools must accompany suitable pedagogy (Laurillard, 2002).
Nevertheless, a 2001 national research showed that 87% of college believe computer technology enhances pupil learning (Epper and Bates, 2001). Regardless of this widespread idea that the usage of technology in the classroom is generally great, such might not exactly always be the situation. Burbules and Callister (2000) suggest technology can be used well or inadequately, and thus its effectiveness depends on how it used, by whom as well as for what goal. Instructors employ varying amounts of technology within their classes.
For instance , some instructors utilize PowerPoint slides or similar technology extensively or moderately within a course, although some seldom or perhaps never make use of technology. There might be several reasons why instructors ultimately choose technology to get classroom make use of. For some, it could help them to produce better organized, more focused classes. For others, they believe that the usage of technology rewards students by engaging them more in the classroom and letting them listen more closely without transcribing every word that is certainly spoken.
Some professors might choose technology because writing on whiteboards or blackboards hinders their very own ability to interact with students. Continue to other course instructors may undertake technology like a time saving device because it is readily available today, provided by the publishers who have are eager to convince faculty to adopt all their textbooks. Even though the motivation could differ, theoretically the entire expectation is the fact technology will be better the course, engage the scholars and enable those to learn more. Right now there may also be for least the implicit hope by the teachers member that teaching reviews will improve.
Study regarding what makes a college teacher successful is recurring. Witcher, Onquegbuzie, Collins, Filer, Wiedmaier, and Moore (2003) suggest that learners believe that successful teachers have many in the event not all of the following 9 characteristics, classified by order of importance: (1) student-centered; (2) proficient in the subject matter; (3) specialist; (4) excited about teaching; (5) effective at connection; (6) accessible; (7) competent at instruction; (8) fair and respectful; and (9) provider of adequate performance feedback. Clearly, usage of technology may impact several of these identified attributes or qualities.
Thus, recently, the proliferation of technology in an educational setting has sparked considerable interest on the The impact of classroom technology, Page two Journal of Technology Analysis part of research workers, and a number of studies have focused on the positives and negatives of technology use from the views of the institution, student and professor. A current study simply by Apperson, Laws and regulations and Scepansky (2006) reviewed the impact of PowerPoint for the students’ classroom experience. While they identified no differences in grades as a result of the use of PowerPoint in the classroom, they did find that learners in PowerPointenhanced classrooms replied differently for the classroom knowledge.
Specifically, pupils believed the PowerPoint classes were better organized plus more interesting. College students also ranked the teacher high general and indicated that they would be more likely to take another class from that teacher. Interestingly, pupils in PowerPoint enhanced courses also found the instructors displayed more positive manners seemingly not related to the make use of technology, including providing useful feedback in a timely fashion and creating assignments that involve higherorder more important or imaginative thought.
Furthermore, Atkins-Sayre, Hopkins, Mohundro, and Sayre (1998) concluded that the use of technology adds to the instructor’s trustworthiness. Lecturers may manage class time more efficiently as a fraction of the time is put in writing in whiteboards or changing transparencies (Daniels, 99, Mantei, 2000), and thus lectures may circulation better. Total, Apperson ou al (2006) believe that the application of technology in classrooms causes students to have a more favorable attitude toward their particular education, and benefits accumulate to instructors who utilize it in their classes.
However , technology usage will not necessarily lead to better instructing evaluations intended for faculty. Lowerison et ‘s found zero significant romance between real computer employ and recognized effective computer system usage on course reviews (2006). Many explanations had been offered with this unexpected outcome, including the fact that students may possibly now anticipate technology to get used in the classroom without longer find it as a unique class characteristic that enhances their learning. These conclusions are like Christensen (1999) study described earlier.
This may also be the case that technology is not being used in an appropriate manner, that is certainly, as a transformative, student-centered tool for learning, a concern portrayed by Burbules and Callister (2000). Computer technology may also better support varied needs and capacities of students, rendering the potential for deeper processing and understanding of data (McCombs, 2000). While the technology may boost the classroom and have interaction today’s student more effectively, the majority of do not believe that it eliminates the need for a structured, content-driving learning process that may be grounded in theory. To be effective, technology-based tools must accompany ideal pedagogy (Laurillard, 2002).
While McFarlane states, “computer employ alone, with out clear targets and smartly designed tasks, is of little intrinsic value (1997). This conventional paper continues the inquiry into the impact of technology in student perceptions of their own learning as well as their particular academic patterns. PRESENT EXAMINE Students acquiring various business classes within a medium-sized Midwestern university had been invited to participate in research study seeking to assess the impact from the presence or perhaps absence of technology in the classroom on self-perceived scholar effort and behavior. Prior to the survey becoming administered in individual classrooms, instructors who also participated had been asked if they made moderate or considerable use of technology in their training.
If the trainer used technology moderately or extensively, then a survey given in that class asked the scholars to give all their opinion concerning how the a shortage of technology would impact numerous components of The effect of class technology, Web page 3 Record of Technology Research college student learning. For example , students were asked whether or not the lack of technology would have an optimistic or adverse impact on all their attentiveness in the lecture as compared to what had been. On the other hand, if the instructor indicated that he/she did not utilize technology moderately or perhaps extensively, then a survey succumbed that course asked the students to give their particular opinion regarding how the addition of technology would impact them.
Therefore, for example , college students in these areas were asked whether even more technology utilization by the teacher would affect their own level of class prep. Survey queries were based partly on 3 different scholar evaluation forms previously or currently being utilized by the researchers’ university, which include an early edition developed and used by most public establishments within the state, the Student Training Report II and the THOUGHT Diagnostic Type Report. Both versions of the survey utilized the following five point size to collect scholar opinions: “1” was considerably positive, “2” was relatively positive, “3” was no difference, “4” was somewhat negative, and “5” was substantially negative.
The survey included as well numerous market questions to aid analysis with the responses. Among other things, students had been asked whether they were graduate student or undergrad students, their particular program of study or major, and the year at school (e. g., freshman, sophomore, etc . ), as well as their very own grade point average and gender. In total nine organization faculty associates, including a pair of the paper’s authors, used the study in their classes. Faculty participants were chosen on the basis of their very own rank, various degrees of technological proficiency and usage, willpower, and sexuality in order to provide a cross-section of courses staying evaluated.
Classes chosen included those with the 100 (first year), 2 hundred (second year), 300 (junior level), 400 (senior level) and graduate student (700) level. In all, the survey was administered in fourteen different business classes, including multiple sections of a few of the courses. The survey was administered near the beginning of last year’s fall session.
Participating teachers were asked to commit class time for you to allow for the completing the review. Enrollment in the sections surveyed totaled seven-hundred students, which includes some students who were enrolled in more than one in the classes included in the sample. As a whole, approximately 550 usable online surveys were accomplished and delivered. A brief synopsis of demographic information to get the undergraduate survey participants is included inside the Appendix.
BENEFITS Table 1 and two show the primary results with the data analysis. In each table, the mean response for each problem is when compared with a fairly neutral response of “3” in order to evaluate the effects that each group might predict given possible changes in all their classroom environments. Recall that each item was based on the following five level scale: “1” – significantly positive, “2” – to some degree positive, “3” – zero difference, “4” – relatively negative, and “5” – significantly unfavorable, resulting in a reduce mean for a more positive perception. The mean is presented to each issue as well as the range of students who have gave a certain response.
Stand 1 displays the outcomes for the surveys succumbed the classes in which the trainer indicated that he/she utilized technology relatively or widely. The review then asked the students to offer their thoughts regarding the way the absence of technology would effects their listening to advice from the study course. There were 374 usable surveys returned from this set of classes. The means in Stand 1 change between the “high 2” selection and the “low 3” range.
Responses through the students during these courses that used technology suggest that learners anticipate the fact that loss of The effect of class technology, Webpage 4 Log of Technology Research technology would have a good impact (mean is less than the neutral response of 3. 0 and statistically different from the neutral response) on the timeframe they research for category each day, the quantity of time they study for exams and quizzes, the quantity of notes they get, their total attendance intended for the class, and their appreciation intended for the instructor’s effort. Assuming that students will view fewer study time as better, it appears that pupils feel they would study fewer if technology is removed from the course.
It seems to some degree counterintuitive the fact that absence of technology would have an optimistic impact on the number of notes that students consider, however , the “quantity” of notes taken can be seen from two different perspectives. Students might consider it a positive to take fewer notes, and students may perceive that they take fewer notes once technology is utilized in the classroom. The losing of technology, based on the students, would also have a positive impact on their attendance and their admiration for the instructor’s efforts. Students may possibly perceive that this would be more important to attend school to hear the fabric presented in case the notes weren’t available by means of technology beyond class.
In addition , it appears that learners believe that technology may make teaching “easier” while the loss of technology would have a positive impact on pupil appreciate of instructor efforts. In contrast, student responses indicate that students expect the loss of technology would have an adverse impact (mean is more than the natural response and statistically different from the fairly neutral response) in attentiveness in the lecture, the amount learned from course, the students’ desire to take additional classes from the particular instructor, as well as the students’ aspire to take extra classes in the subject matter. These results claim that students see there are specific rewards associated with technology use in the classroom.
Technology may be a method instructors can easily maintain student interest. Indeed, the reactions appear to claim that students understand that they might learn fewer if technology were withdrawn. Students also indicated that they would be less inclined to adopt additional classes from the teacher if technology were not employed, and they may also be significantly less inclined to consider more courses in the same subject matter if technology were not a part of the classroom knowledge.
On the other hand, the responses claim that students could be more likely to show up at class and still have a greater understanding for trainer effort in the event technology were not used in the classroom. Outcomes of the two questions concerning how a enhancements made on technology use from moderate/intensive to non-e at all will impact the student’s general evaluation with the course as well as the instructor can also be presented in Table 1 ) Students who currently knowledge technology in their classroom would charge a program less beneficially if the technology were removed (mean over a neutral three or more. 0 and statistically different from the simple 3. 0).
However , the impact on the students’ ratings from the instructor appears to be neutral under the loss of technology scenario. Desk 2 shows the benefits for the surveys succumbed the classes in which the teacher indicated that he/she did not use technology moderately or perhaps extensively. Individuals surveys in that case asked the scholars to share their very own thoughts regarding how the addition of technology would effects the the way they behaved in this time.
There were 183 usable surveys returned using this set of classes. The mean for every query was under the neutral response of “3, ” which suggests that pupils thought that these courses that did not presently use technology could be improved by the addition of it; a reduced mean again reflects a far more positive impact. The responses provided by the students inside the courses that did not will include a technology element indicated that its addition of technology would have a good impact (mean less than and significantly distinct from the neutral response) for all questions besides two, i actually. e. the number of interaction together with the instructor beyond class plus the students’ prefer to take more classes inside the subject matter.
These results The effect of classroom technology, Page 5 Journal of Technology Research suggest that in the judgment of the pupils, the addition of technology would have a general positive impact on their behavior. Digging in technology might, according to the students, have the many positive impact within the students’ gratitude for the instructor’s efforts, the amount the students learn from the course, and the quality in the notes which the students consider. According to both Furniture 1 and 2, the number of interaction that students have with the instructor outside of course is technology “neutral” since the suggest was close to “3” to get both versions of the study.
Results with the two queries pertaining to how the addition of technology into a course it does not currently utilize it would influence the student’s overall evaluation of the study course and the teacher are provided in Stand 2 as well. The reactions were great (mean less than the fairly neutral response of three. 0 and statistically unlike the simple response of 3. 0). These kinds of results suggest that the prospect of including technology in the classroom environment appears to raise the likelihood that students will perceive both the course plus the instructor towards a more favorable lumination. In addition to comparing the means for each version in the survey into a neutral response of “3, ” the means for every version may be compared to one another.
In Desk 3, in your first set of data (i. e., the left side) shows the results to get the studies given in the classes in which the instructor indicated that he used technology moderately or extensively, while using students being asked the way the removal of technology would effect their habit. The second group of data (i. e., the best side) reveals the outcomes for the surveys given in the classes in which the teacher indicated that he/she would not use technology moderately or extensively, with all the students getting asked the way the addition of technology could influence all their behavior.
Responses from all those students in classrooms that currently used technology (left set) appeared to suggest a neutral effect on the students’ evaluation of the instructor if technology had been withdrawn (mean close to 3. 0), although a slightly even more negative (mean above a few. 0) respond to the analysis of the course if technology were taken [see Table 1]. Students who were in class that did not presently use technology (right set) indicated the addition of the technology might improve their analysis of both the course plus the instructor (mean below three or more.
0) [see Stand 2]. While might be expected given the various results reported in the initial two tables, the differences between your two teams were statistically significant for some of the variables as reported in Desk 3. College students appear to want technology in their classroom and that desire appears to be reflected in the overall evaluation in the course and instructor. Since Table a few illustrates, learners who are not currently subjected to technology in the classroom generally replied more positively to the possibility of adding the technology than would students whom imagined the technology staying withdrawn.
Eleven of the 17 questions reflected statistically significant differences (?< 0. 050) in the suggest responses between your two groupings. In other words, learners who presently experience technology in the classroom provided significantly different responses via those who at the moment did not have technology in the classroom.
The inquiries that shown statistically significant differences happen to be noted with an “*” in Table 3. For all those questions where a statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed, answers from learners who at present do not go through the use of technology in the classroom shown more positive imply responses to the addition of technology consumption than would their equivalent who might experience the withdrawal of technology in the classroom. The six items which did not create statistically significant differences between your two survey groups had been as follows: • Amount of time you study to get class each day. • Timeframe you study for tests and quizzes.
The impact of classroom technology, Page 6 Journal of Technology Analysis • Level of notes. • Overall attendance. • Quantity of conversation with the instructor during course. • Sum of interaction with the instructor outside of class. These outcomes suggest that college student perceptions of these six items are “technology fairly neutral. ” In other words, the addition of technology where it can be currently certainly not used or the loss of technology where it can be used can be not identified to have a significant impact on the amount of time pupils study, the amount of notes they take, their presence, or their very own interaction while using instructor.
As opposed for nine of the 9 items marked with an “*” in Table several, technology appears to have a good impact since the loss of technology (left side) has a mean greater than “3” (negative impact) and the addition of technology (right side) has a suggest less than “3” (positive impact). Therefore , based on the comparison of both samples, technology has meaningful impact on scholar preparation for class, attentiveness, quality of your notes taken, scholar participation in class, student learning, desire to have additional classes from the trainer or in the subject matter, plus the overall evaluation of the course and the trainer. The student respond to one issue [student’s appreciation of instructor effort] much more problematic.
In each group student responses suggested a change from the existing situation may be viewed even more positively than maintaining its status, and each group reflected responses that were drastically different from a neutral response on this issue [see Tables 1 and 2]. Although every group reacted more absolutely than simple to this issue, students in the group with no technology pertaining to whom it was suggested technology might be added responded even more positively than did the students who were asked to imagine a class in which the technology might be taken.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that adding technology to courses where it is not necessarily currently employed is likely to possess a positive impact on student perceptions of the trainer and the course as well as on many aspects of pupil behavior. Yet , it interesting to note that removing technology from classes that already use it would not appear to have a negative impact on all areas of student habit.
For example , removal of technology from a training course might, in respect to student responses, include a positive effect on the amount of time they analyze for class each day, the quantity of time that they study pertaining to exams and quizzes, the number of notes they get, their total attendance pertaining to the class, and the appreciation intended for the instructor’s effort. Yet , removal of technology from a course that currently utilizes it would be viewed negatively with regards to the overall analysis of the training course, the students’ attentiveness in the lecture, the amount the scholars learn from school, the students’ desire to consider additional classes from the particular instructor, plus the students’ aspire to take additional classes in the subject matter.
Comparison of the loss of technology in a program that at the moment uses it versus the addition of technology to a training course that does not utilize it suggests that there are particular aspects which are “technology simple. ” Basically, the addition of technology where it can be currently certainly not used or the loss of technology where it really is used can be not identified to have a significant impact on the number of time college students study, the number of notes they take, their presence, or their interaction while using instructor. In contrast, technology appears to have a meaningful impact on student preparation for category, attentiveness, quality of notes considered, student contribution in class, The effect of class room technology, Page 7. Diary of Technology Research pupil learning, wish to take further classes through the instructor or in the topic, and the total evaluation with the course plus the instructor.
The investigation is not really meant to determine how effective technology was in aiding students study or which will technology could possibly be most effective. Rather, this exploration focuses on pupil perceptions or opinions with regards to technology usage and how adding technology to a course that will not use it or eliminating technology from a course that does make use of it might effect a student’s perception in the course or perhaps the faculty member as well as his or her behavior. These types of results suggest that students acquiring business classes at this Midwestern University see that technology use in the classroom truly does indeed offer an overall positive impact.
While scientific enhancement might not necessarily end up being appropriate for every classroom circumstances and all subject material, these results suggest that trainers who happen to be comfortable employing technology in order to find that it increases their teaching experience should continue to include it in their classes. Individuals who do, however , must bear in mind technology so that it is – a tool which could have a good impact on college student behaviors and perceptions when used correctly. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE EXPLORATION There are several constraints to the present study.
The outcome was drawn from info collected coming from students signed up for business programs at a single Midwestern University or college and, therefore , the outcomes may not be general to hold several populations including non-business learners or students at schools in other parts of the country or even the universe. Further examination is at this time underway that considers the impact of the addition of technology to a course that does not use it or the associated with technology via a study course that does use it on a student’s belief of trainer effectiveness. In addition , while this type of research concentrates on student perceptions of technology use, the greatest goal of technology the use in the classroom should be to help students learn.
Therefore , further research to help to distinguish which technology uses will be most educationally meaningful might help educators to make informed decisions about the plethora of technology tools available for the classroom today. Gaining a much better understanding of student expectations concerning technology make use of for students of different ages might also be beneficial information. Another avenue of future analysis, which could only occur subsequent to the two techniques previously mentioned, would be a study of whether or not student awareness are congruent with the use of technology tools that are found to be most effective in advancing pupil learning.
The effect of class technology, Web page 8 Log of Technology Research Desk 1 Comparison of Student Reactions Relative to a Neutral Response for the Impact on Personal Behavior of the Loss of Technology Where It is currently Used Anticipated Effect of the losing of Technology A sexually transmitted disease testN Indicate Dev stat Alpha The degree of your planning for each course session. 372 3. 032 0. 968 0. 643 0. 521 The amount of time you analyze for class each day. 5. 373 installment payments on your 831 zero. 843 three or more. 870 zero.
000 The quantity of time you study intended for exams and 373 installment payments on your 721 zero. 960 five. 608 zero.
000 quizzes. * Your attentiveness in class. * 372 3. 228 1 . 197 3. 682 0. 000 The quantity of paperwork you take. * 372 2 . 769 1 . 324 3. 368 0. 001 The quality of records you take. 373 several. 078 1 ) 302 1 . 153 zero.
250 The level of contribution in class talks. 372 a few. 043 0. 895 zero. 927 0. 355 Your entire attendance for the class. * 373 2 . 788 zero. 823 some. 967 zero. 000 The quantity of your conversation with the instructor during class. 373 installment payments on your 976 0. 824 0. 565 zero. 572 How much interaction together with the instructor outside 373 3. 005 zero. 846 zero. 122 zero. 903 of sophistication. The amount you discover from course. * 373 3. 231 1 . 090 4. 084 0. 1000 Your gratitude for the instructor’s work. * 372 2 . 849 1 . 038 2 . 798 0. 005 Your admiration for the importance of the materials. 373 2 . 960 zero. 925 0. 840 zero. 402 Your desire to consider additional classes from the particular instructor. 2. 374 several.
112 0. 981 installment payments on your 213 0. 028 The desire to have additional classes in the subject matter. * 374 3. 104 0. 916 2 . 202 0. 028 Your overall analysis of this program. * 372 3. 290 1 . 062 5. 271 0. 1000 Your overall evaluation of this trainer. 372 a few. 048 1 . 008 0. 926 0. 355 Note: Questions with statistically significant differences among mean responses and a great expected fairly neutral response [3.
0] happen to be marked with an “*”. The impact of classroom technology, Page on the lookout for Journal of Technology Analysis Table a couple of Comparison of Student Responses Relative to a Natural Response pertaining to the Impact about Personal Habit of the Addition of Technology Where It is not necessarily Used Anticipated Effect of digging in Technology A sexually transmitted disease testN Imply Dev stat alpha The level of your preparation for each course session. 2. 183 installment payments on your 601 zero. 883 6. 112 zero. 000 The quantity of time you study pertaining to class every day. * 183 2 . 820 0. 822 2 . 967 0. 003 The amount of time you analyze for tests and quizzes. * 183 2 . 634 0. 860 5. 762 0. 000 Your attentiveness in class. * 183 2 . 634 1 ) 111 four.
460 0. 000 The amount of notes you take. * 183 2 . 743 1 . 202 2 . 891 zero. 004 The quality of notes you take. 2. 183 installment payments on your 557 1 . 179 a few. 077 zero. 000 The level of engagement in class discussions. * 183 2 . 814 0. 776 3. 238 0. 001 Your overall presence for your class. * 183 2 . 689 0. 959 4. 395 0. 500 The amount of your interaction with all the instructor during class.
2. 183 installment payments on your 891 0. 741 1 ) 996 zero. 047 The number of interaction together with the instructor outside class. 183 2 . 962 0. 615 0. 842 0. 401 The amount you discover from course. * 183 2 . 563 1 . 040 5. 684 0. 1000 Your appreciation for the instructor’s work. * 183 2 . 546 1 . 004 6. 113 0. 1000 Your gratitude for the value of the materials. * 183 2 . 590 0. 890 6. 227 0. 000 Your prefer to take added classes in the particular instructor. * 182 2 . 747 0. 929 3. 668 0. 1000 Your wish to take extra classes inside the subject matter.
182 2 . 901 0. 848 1 . 573 0. 117 Your overall evaluation of this study course. * 182 2 . 571 1 . 031 5. 605 0. 500 Your overall analysis of this trainer. * 182 2 . 582 0. 976 5. 775 0. 000 Note: Queries with statistically significant variations between imply responses and an expected neutral response [3. 0] are marked with an “*”. The impact of classroom technology, Site 10.
Record of Technology Research Table 3 A comparison of Responses to Questions regarding Student Patterns for the Impact of the Loss in Technology Wherever It is Now Used (Left Set) versus the Addition of Technology in Classes Where It is not necessarily Used (Right Set) Expected Effect of Predicted Effect of the losing of the Addition of Technology Technology D Mean A sexually transmitted disease Dev And Mean A sexually transmitted disease Dev alpha dog The level of the preparation for every single class program. * How much time you study to get class every day. The amount of time you research for tests and quizzes. Your attentiveness in class. 2. The quantity of records you consider.
The quality of notes you have. * The level of particip.