Translation and Technology Essay

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Contents List of Figures, Dining tables and Containers Series Editors’ Preface Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations Introduction you Definition of Conditions Machine translation Human-aided machine translation Machine-aided human translation Human translation The localization industry Realization 2 Translation Studies and Translation Technology Translation theory Academic and professional teams in translation Linguistic ideas in equipment translation devices Translation research The translation process Realization 3 Machine.

Translation Systems Major famous developments Architectures Hybrid and interactive machine translation systems On the net machine translation systems Industrial machine translation systems Causes of using machine translation devices Conclusion vii ix xii xiv xvi 1 6 8 11 13 14 19 twenty 22 22 26 35 36 43 55 57 58 sixty six 84 eighty-five 87 fifth there�s 89 91 viii Contents. four Computer-Aided Translating tools and Solutions Workbenches Translation support tools and methods Localization equipment Commercial computer-aided translation tools Specifications for info interchange Bottom line 5 Analyzing Translation Tools Equipment translation devices Computer-aided translating tools Stakeholders Evaluation methods General frameworks for evaluating translating services Conclusion six Recent Innovations and Long term Directions Equipment translation devices Computer-aided translating services Translation systems with talk technology. Translation systems pertaining to minority languages Translation online Machine translation systems plus the semantic net The localization industry Bottom line 7 Translation Types Revisited Relationships among topics and translation types Machine translation systems Computer-aided translation tools Bottom line Appendices References Index 93 93 106 113 117 119 128 129 129 131 133 135 139 151 152 152 156 157 162 164 166 170 171 172 173 191 193 195 197 204 218 List of Statistics, Tables and Boxes Characters 1 . one particular 1 . 2 1 . a few 1 . 5 1 . a few 2 . you 2 . two 2 . 3 2 . four 2 . 5 2 . six 2 . 7 2 . 8 2 . 9 2 . 10 2 . 11 2 . 12 2 . 13 3. you 3. a couple of 3. a few 3. 4 3. a few 3. six 3. six 3. almost eight 3. being unfaithful.

Classification of translation types Machine translation model Equipment translation program based on utilization Human-aided equipment translation unit Machine-aided man translation version Chronology of translation ideas Translation method model Example of sentence representations Holmes’ schizzo of translation studies. A schema of applied translation studies A model in the translation procedure including pre- and post-editing tasks Sort of an English SL text and its pre-edited edition Unedited and post-edited The spanish language machine translation output Sort of natural and controlled different languages Example of unique English textual content and its AECMA simplified British version Example of natural English, simplified British and made easier Arabic texts Example of an English controlled vocabulary text and its particular translations Representation of the translation process utilizing a machine translation system.

Chronology of machine translation development Example of structural representations Equipment translation architectures Direct translation model Interlingua model Interlingua multilingual machine translation system model Transfer model Transfer using tree-to-tree parsing Transfer multilingual machine translation program model ix 7 being unfaithful 10 12 13 twenty-three 29 thirty-one 37 40 43 forty-four 46 forty eight 50 fifty-one 53 fifty four 58 sixty-eight 68 70 72 seventy two 74 seventy five 76 back button List of Statistics, Tables and Boxes several. 10 three or more. 11 three or more. 12 three or more. 13 some.

1 5. 2 4. 3 some. 4 4. 5 5. 6 some. 7 5. 8 four. 9 4. 10 four. 11 some. 12 5. 13 5. 14 5. 15 some. 16 four. 17 four. 18 4. 19 4. 20 some. 21 4. 22 a few. 1 your five. 2 your five. 3 5. 4 5. 5 6th. 1 6. 2 . Statistical-based model Possibilities workflow inside the statistical-based procedure Example-based unit Translations by simply online equipment translation systems Example of Web coding in a website Example of the internet page with out HTML code Example of a translation workflow by using a translation memory space system Example of an English origin text Pre-translation 1 Repository model in translation recollection systems Guide model in translation memory systems.

Flowchart to illustrate how to build a parallel ensemble Example of a text header in a ensemble Example of part-of-speech tagging Example of a concordance for the phrase ‘round’ Types of device used in a localization job Example of the translation process using a machine translation system, a translation database and a terminology database Example of TMX data-sharing Sort of a header in TMX. Example of a body in TMX Sort of a header in TBX Example of a body in TBX Sort of XLIFF inside the localization procedure Example of a header in XLIFF Sort of a human body in XLIFF Example of another translation element in XLIFF Sort of a glass-box evaluation Sort of a black-box evaluation Example of an evaluation procedure Standardization projects for assessing machine translation systems EAGLES general evaluation framework Future-use model of translation technology.

Speech technology in translation 78 80 seventy eight 87 99 99 102 102 ciento tres 103 104 109 110 111 112 114 117 120 121 122 124 125 126 127 127 127 138 139 141 142 one hundred forty five 154 158 Tables 1 . 1 a few. 1 One of a desk for explaining translation types Example of a word entry in KAMI almost 8 67 Set of Figures, Dining tables and Bins xi three or more. 2 3. 3 a few. 4 4. 1 four.

2 four. 3 4. 4 5. 5 some. 6 5. 7 5. 8 six. 1 six. 2 7. 3 several. 4 7. 5 six. 6 7. 7 7. 8 several. 9 7. 10 7. 11 7. 12 7. 13 six. 14 several. 15 six. 16 six. 17 several. 18 7. 19 7. 20. Imitation in the example-based approach Semantic similarity in the example-based approach Classification of commercial machine translation systems Example of perfect matching Examples of fluffy matching Higher and reduce threshold proportions for fuzzy matching Samples of matching recommendations for ‘bow’ Example of segments Example of translation units Example of English-French translation devices from a database.

Classification of commercial computer-aided translation tools Level of automation Human intervention Included tools Using theory Using theory in machine translation systems Source-language texts Target-language texts Levels of the translation process Types of text message Language addiction Types of source terminology Data interchange standards in translation Translation groups. and data interchange standards Levels of evaluation Strategies of evaluation Features in a machine translation system Language coverage in machine translation systems Texts and computer-aided translation tools Language habbit in computer-aided translation tools Range of languages in computer-aided translating tools 82 82 88 96 96 97 98 75 101 102 118 174 175 175 176 177 178 180 181 182 185 186 187 one eighty eight 189 190 191 193 194 194 195 Boxes 1 . one particular 5. 1 A translator at work FEMTI evaluation structure 14 147 Series Editors’ Preface Recent times have seen momentous changes in the study of Modern Languages, internationally as well as nationally. On the one hand, the rapid growth of English being a universal stato franca has rendered the command of other languages a much less compelling commodity.

On the other hand, the need for intercultural mediators which includes translators and interpreters is growing as a result of many recent interpersonal, political and economic advancements; these include legislative changes, the emergence of supranational organisations, the ease of travel, telecommunications, commercial pressures increasing awareness of local needs, migration and job mobility, and a heightened understanding of linguistic and human rights. Today, linguistically oriented learners wishing to go after a career through which they are able to even more their interest in languages and cultures would be more likely to choose vocationally relevant classes in which translation and interpretation play a significant part rather than traditional Modern day Language deg.

Thus the probabilities for professional work in translation and interpretation have been expanded, particularly resulting from developments in technology, whether as assisting the translation process or as a means of dissemination and broadening use of communications in lots of media. The role of translation is usually, for example , becoming increasingly important inside the context of modern media including television and cinema, whether for documented or entertainment purposes. Plus the technological options for offering interpreting providers, whether towards the police officer for the beat or the business owner on a diverse continent, possess extended the previously physically confined nature of mediating the voiced word.

In addition to these new vistas open up opportunities pertaining to the specialist linguist, additionally they point to increasing areas of analysis in Translation and Interpreting Studies. Practice and theory are of mutual benefit, especially in the circumstance of a relatively young self-control such as Translation Studies. Therefore, the first aim of this series, written mainly for the MA and advanced undergraduate student, should be to highlight modern issues and concerns to supply informed, theoretically based, accounts of developments in translation and meaning.

The second goal is to present ready gain access to for students thinking about the study and pursuit of Modern Languages to xii Series Editors’ Preamble xiii professional issues that happen to be of significance to the modern world of converting and interpreting. The final goal is to give informed improvements to practising professionals upon recent innovations in the field impacting on their discipline. Linguistic, Culture and Translation Studies University or college of Surrey Guildford UK GUNILLA ANDERMAN MARGARET ROGERS Acknowledgements I am indebted to three persons for their efforts.

This book could have taken more time to finish if it had not been for Chooi Tsien Yeo who searched background information for me. Words are not able to express my gratitude to Stephen Moore, in between translation deadlines, intended for putting his experiences like a professional ubersetzungsprogramm into writing. I was extremely indebted to Paul Marriott to get his comments and recommendations, particularly upon helping to picture a new way to depict the multidimensional category of translation types in Chapter several. I would like to acknowledge especially the Duke University Libraries and Institute of Statistics and Decision Technology at Duke University in providing myself with the environment and research facilities exactly where most of this book was drafted.

Also my own thanks to the Nationwide University of Singapore Your local library, George Edward Library in the University of Surrey, plus the Department of Statistics and Actuarial Technology at the College or university of Waterloo for their help. I would love to acknowledge the following writers, publishers and organizations to get allowing the use of copyright materials in this book: John Hutchins, Harold Somers and Elsevier (Academic Press Ltd) pertaining to the classification of translation types in Chapter you; Eugene Nida and the Linguistic Society of America pertaining to the translation process in Chapter 2; John Smart and Intelligent Communications, Inc. for the controlled and simplified English language samples in Chapter 2; Francis Relationship and Takefumi Yamazaki pertaining to the KAMI Malay–English book entry in Chapter three or more; Paolo Dongilli and Johann Gamper pertaining to the building of the parallel a in Chapter 4; Tony adamowicz Jewtushenko and Peter Reynolds of OASIS for XLIFF in Chapter 4; Enrique de Argaez at Net World Statistics for the statistical determine on the Internet population in Chapter 6; Michael Carl, Reinhard Schaler, Andy Approach, Springer Scientific research and Organization Media, and Kluwer Academic Publishers intended for the type of the future make use of translation technology in Part 6. To Antonio Ribeiro, Tessadit Lagab, Margaret Rogers and Chooi Tsien Yeo, my many sincere very good translating by English in Portuguese, France, German and Chinese correspondingly.

I am solely responsible for any translation errors that occurred. A special thank you goes to Elsie Shelter, Shaun Yeo, Angeliki Petrits, Mirko Plitt and Ken Seng Bronze for giving an answer to some of my personal queries. xiv Acknowledgements xv To Caroline, At the, Gillian and Lyndsay, i want to thank helping out with keying in corrections around the earlier drafts. Lastly, to my ‘sifu’ and good friend Peter Newmark, a big thank-you for all the translation discussions there were during our coffee–biscuit sessions years ago. Whether it had not been for the series editors, Gunilla Anderman and Margaret Rogers, this book would not have been drafted. I was forever pleased to both of them for their reviews and remarks.

Thanks to Jill Lake of Palgrave Macmillan for her persistence and understanding due to my personal ‘country-hopping’ coming from Southeast Asia to North America during the composing of this publication. Waterloo, Canada CHIEW KIN QUAH Set of Abbreviations. ACRoTERMITE AECMA AIA ALPAC ALPS ALT-J/C ALT-J/E ALT-J/M AMTA ASCC HOSTING ARTICLES ATA FUNDAMENTAL BLEU BSO CAT CAT2 CESTA CFE CIA CICC CRATER CTE CULT DARPA DBMT DIPLOMAT DLT DTS EAGLES HEARING EDIG Lingo of Telecommunications European Association of Tail wind Industries Tail wind Industries Affiliation of America Automatic Language Processing Admonitory Committee Automated Language Control System Programmed Language Ubersetzungsprogramm Japanese to Chinese Programmed Language.

Ubersetzungsprogramm Japanese to English Automated Language Translator Japanese to Malay Association of Equipment Translation inside the Americas Automatic Spelling Checker Checker Jetstream and Protection American Translators Association British American Clinical International, Commercial Bilingual Analysis Understudy Oficina voor Systeemontwikkeling Computer-Aided Translation Constructors, Atoms and Translators Campagne d’Evaluation de Systemes de Traduction Automatique Caterpillar Fundamental The english language Central Intelligence Agency Middle of Foreign Cooperation intended for Computerization Ensemble Resources and Terminology Removal Caterpillar. Technological English China University Language Translator Protection Advanced Studies Agency Dialogue-based Machine Translation Distributed Intelligent Processing of Language to get Operational Machine Aided Translation Distributed Terminology Translation Descriptive Translation Research Expert Prediction Group in Language Engineering Standards Powerful, Affordable Recylable Speech-to-Text Western european Defence Sectors Group xvi List of Abbreviations xvii.

ELDA ELRA ENGSPAN ENIAC EURODICAUTUM EUROSPACE EUROTRA EVALDA EWG FAHQT/FAHQMT FEMTI GENETER GETA HAMT HICATS HT HTML CODE IAMT IATE INTERSECT ISI ISLE ISO JEIDA JEITA JICST-E KAMI KANT KGB LDC LISA LMT LTC LTRAC MAHT MANTRA MARTIF Evaluations and Language methods Distribution Company European Terminology Resources Relationship English The spanish language Machine Translation System Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer system European. Lingo Database Aerospace and Defence Companies Association of Europe European Translation Facilities d’EVALuation a ELDA Analysis Working Group Fully Automatic High Quality (Machine) Translation A Framework pertaining to the Analysis of Machine Translation in ISLE General Model intended for Terminology Groupe eponyme d’Etude pour la Traduction Automatique Human-Aided/Assisted Machine Translation Hitachi Computer system Aided Translation System Individual Translation HyperText Markup Vocabulary International Relationship of Machine Translation Inter-Agency Terminology Exchange International Sample of English language Contrastive.

Texts International Record Institute Foreign Standards intended for Language Engineering International Corporation for Standardization Japan Electronic Industry Advancement Association Asia Electronics and Information Technology Relationship Japan Info Center of Science and Technology Kamus Melayu-Inggeris (Malay-English Dictionary) Knowledge-based Accurate Translation Komitet Gosudarstvennoi Bezopasnosti Linguistic Data Holding Localisation Industry and Standards Association Logic-based Machine Translation Language Technology Centre Language Translation Methods Automatic System Machine-Aided/Assisted Human being Translation Machine Assisted Translation Machine Legible Terminology Interchange Format xviii List of Abbreviations. MASTOR CUSHION METAL METU MLIR MT NAATI NIST OASIS OCP OCR OLIF OS OSCAR PaTrans PAHO PDA CONTRAPESO RDF RFC SALT SGML SPANAM SUSY SYSTRAN ENGAGE TAUM TBX TEMAA TGT-1 THETOS TMF TMX TOLL TONGUES TS TTS Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-Speech Translator Machine-Aided/Assisted Translation Mechanised Translation and Analysis of Language Midsection East Technological University MultiLingual Information Retrieval Machine.

Translation National Accreditation Authority pertaining to Translators and Interpreters Ltd. National Institute of Standards and Technology Organization pertaining to the Advancement of Organised Information Standards Oxford Regularite Programme Optical Character Reputation Open Lexicon Interchange Format Operating System Open up Standards for Container/Content Allowing Re-use Patent Translation Pan-American Well being Organization Personal Digital Assistant Portuguese-English Word Alignment Reference Description Framework Request for Remarks Standards-based Entry to Lexicographical & Terminological Multi-lingual Resources Regular Generalised Markup.

Language Spanish American Machine Translation System Saarbrucker UbersetzungsSYstem System Translation Think-Aloud Protocols Traduction deraisonnable a l’Universite de Montreal TermBase eXchange Testbed Research of Evaluation Methodologies: Writing Aids Text-into-Gesture Translator Textual content into Signal Language Programmed Translator for Polish Terminological Markup Structure Translation Recollection eXchange Thailander On-Line Selection Act 2 Audio Tone of voice Translation Guidebook Systems Translation Studies Theoretical Translation Studies List of Short-hand xix WebDIPLOMAT WebOnt WWW W3C XLIFF XLT XML Web Sent out Intelligent Finalizing of Vocabulary for Functional Machine Assisted Translation Net Ontology World-wide-web WWW Pool XML Positionnement Interchange File Format XML Manifestation of Lexicons and Vocable Extensible or Extensive Markup Language This site intentionally still left blank Intro For over half a century, the need for a various translations by different sets of end-users has enabled a number of translation tools to become developed. This really is reflected inside the systems that is discussed from this book, ranging from machine translation systems, computer-aided translation tools and translation assets.

The majority of literature and content on translation technology centering on the development of these kinds of systems and tools have been written from the point of view of researchers and developers. More recent publications written with translators at heart have focused on the use of particular tools. This book is intended because an introduction to translation technology for students of translation.

It can also be useful to specialist translators and the ones interested in being aware of about translation technology. A unique approach is usually taken in that descriptions of particular equipment are not supplied, and the progress different equipment translation and computer-aided translating services and their uses are discussed. Programming details and numerical equations are generally not considered, apart from in the discussion of the statistical approach to machine translation where minimal necessary formulae will be included.

Information are given to permit readers to further investigate specific approaches or perhaps issues that may possibly interest these people, using recommendations cited through the entire book. It is additionally important to be aware that no particular approach or design is deemed to become better than some other. Each and every one has their own strengths and weaknesses.

Oftentimes, readers will see that instances of systems and tools are given but that is not suggest that these are the best; they are really simply illustrations to demonstrate the factors made. one particular 2 Translation and Technology While exploring this book, I recently found that the majority of publications from the literary works on translation technology are about the development of machine translation systems, generally involving trial and error systems produced or staying developed at a number of universities and large business corporations throughout the world. The book will show that many of these devices never attained their commercial potential and remained while experimental tools, while some other folks served while tools pertaining to other natural-language processing applications.

By contrast, not much literature seems to be available on computeraided tools just like translation storage systems. Even as we shall find in this book, most computer-aided translation tools will be developed by business companies and, as a result, progress reports on these tools hardly ever published inside the public domain. Furthermore, to appeal to different needs and requirements, a tool like a translation memory system also comes in many types from the most elementary to the sophisticated.

Insights in the use of they can be found in translator magazines and occasionally also posted on the World Wide Web (WWW). The analysis of translation tools falls into a field that may be wellresearched. Once again we will see that most of the materials focuses on the evaluation of machine translation systems.

Furthermore, the comprehensive use of translating services and translation processes involved in the localization market tend to become discussed independently, giving the impression they are not relevant to translation. Both of these areas happen to be, however , immediately relevant to translation technology. Hence they are also included in this book.

Essentially, the publication contains precisely what is felt ought to be included in in an attempt to provide an overview of translation technology. In order to keep the book with the given length, the matters have been properly selected with a described in greater details than other folks. In some chapters, an abbreviated famous background have been deemed important in order to provide an improved understanding of the topics reviewed, especially in the description of the advancement machine translation systems and their evaluation. However , in all instances, references have already been provided which usually readers might choose to pursue another time. Suggestions for further more reading are supplied at the end of every chapter (Chapters 1 to 6).

The first phase discusses the definitions of terms talking about the use of personal computers in translation activities. A number of the terms can be confusing to everyone who is unfamiliar with translating tools. In some cases, a similar translation tools get different labels depending on what exactly they are used for; in other cases, an instrument may be in a different way classified with respect to the perspective of these who have developed that device. Introduction 3 The aim through this chapter is definitely therefore to clarify these kinds of terminological and related matters.

An alternative perspective to the several basic translation types – fully automated high-quality equipment translation, human-aided machine translation, machine-aided human being translation, and human translation – first proposed simply by Hutchins and Somers (1992) is brought to reflect current developments in translation technology. This will become explored much more detail in the final chapter where the 4 translation types are evaluated in relation to issues described available. The second section discusses technology within the bigger framework of Translation Studies as a discipline, focusing on the relationship between the engineering of translation technology, on the one hand, and Translation Studies which include translation theory, on the other hand.

The relationship between educational and professional groups involved in translation is usually examined. As a result leads to an analysis of the engagement of a particular approach in linguistic theories – called ‘formalisms’ in natural-language processing – especially in the design of machine translation systems. A different perspective on the translation process involving pre- and post-editing tasks using a exceptional variety of dialect called ‘controlled language’ is additionally presented.

This kind of translation procedure is referred to using the translation model recommended by Jakobson (1959/2000), a translation version that is different significantly in the one suggested by Nida (1969). The next chapter offers detailed points of different equipment translation program designs also called ‘architectures’. The development of machine translation over a lot of decades, their capabilities plus the different types of equipment translation devices, past and present, can also be included.

Both equally experimental and commercial devices are mentioned, although the emphasis is around the experimental systems. Even though equipment translation has been well-documented elsewhere, a discussion is usually deemed being important for this book. It is experienced that modern-day professional translators should be up to date about machine translation systems because there is just about every reason to think, as we shall discover in Chapter six, that long term trends in translation technology are moving towards included systems exactly where at least one translation tool can be combined with one more, as is already the case inside the integration of machine translation with translation memory.

Your fourth chapter explains the architectures and uses of several computer-aided translating services, such as translation memory systems, as well as assets such as parallel corpora. In contrast to machine translation systems, which are largely produced by universities, most computeraided translating services are manufactured by commercial corporations. Thus, four Translation and Technology information regarding such equipment is harder to obtain.

This chapter will likely show that computer-aided translation tools are becoming more advanced and employing different systems, and so ‘standards for info interchange’ have been completely created. Three different criteria are described. Currently available commercial translation tools can also be discussed.

In addition , this phase presents an overview of additional commercially available tools such as those used in the localization market. The sixth chapter splashes on the evaluation of translation technology. The discussion focuses on several groups of stakeholders from study sponsors to end-users. Also included in the conversation are the several methods of evaluation: human, machine, and a mixture of human and machine since evaluator.

The choice of method applied depends on who also the analysis is for and its purpose. It also depends on if an entire application or only some parts are evaluated. Also referred to in this phase is the standard framework of evaluation proposed by various study groups in america and The european countries.

The books on analysis concentrates on the evaluation of machine translation systems both during the developmental stage or after the process of development is completed. Less information can be bought on the evaluation of computeraided translation tools. What is available is located mainly in translation magazines, magazines and newsletters.

The sixth section presents several recent advancements and displays the direction in which translation technology can be heading, particularly regarding the way forward for machine translation systems which can be now including speech technology features. The integration of presentation technology and traditional machine translation devices allows translation not only among texts or between stretches of talk, but likewise between text and talk. This the usage is demonstrating to be useful in many specific situations around the globe especially in foreign relations and trade.

This chapter likewise looks at studies in countries that are active in the development of translating services for community languages and discusses the issues encountered in developing machine translation devices for languages that are much less well-known but not widely used. Another type of technology known as the ‘Semantic Web’ which has the potential to further improve the functionality of selected machine translation systems is also described. One of them chapter, also, are issues such as linguistic dominance and translation demands on the WORLD WIDE WEB that are currently shaping parts of the translation industry.

The book proves by delivering an expanded version with the four simple classifications of translation types as recommended by Hutchins and Somers (1992) and introduced in Chapter 1 ) It is figured the Intro 5 one-dimensional linear entier originally recommended is no longer able to accurately reflect current developments in translation technology. Translation tools today appear in different editions and types depending on the purposes for which they are really built. Many are multifunctional although some remain monofunctional. An alternative way must consequently be found to depict the complexities and multidimensional interactions between the four translation types and the topics discussed in this book.

Not necessarily possible to place every single subject matter discussed right here into one diagram or physique, and so, to acquire a better comprehension of how the issues are associated with one another, they may be divided into teams. Topics or issues in each group have a common theme that links these people together, and are also presented in a series of tables. However , it is crucial to bear in mind that not all matters can be presented neatly and easily even in this way. This clearly shows the complexity and multidimensionality of translation actions in the modern technological world.

At the conclusion of the book, several Bout provide information on the different Internet sites for many different translation tools and translation support equipment such as monolingual, bilingual, trilingual and multi-lingual dictionaries, glossaries, thesauri and encyclopaedia. Just a selected people are not listed here, and thus the email lists are not thorough.

It is also vital that you note that a lot of Internet sites may not be permanent; during the time of the composing, every effort has been designed to ensure that almost all sites happen to be accessible. one particular Definition of Terms In translation technology, conditions commonly used to describe translation tools are as follows: • • • • • • equipment translation (MT); machine-aided/assisted man translation (MAHT); human-aided/assisted equipment translation (HAMT); computer-aided/assisted translation (CAT); machine-aided/assisted translation (MAT); fully automatic high-quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/FAHQMT). Distinctions among some of these conditions are not always clear.

For instance , computer-aided translation (CAT) is normally the term utilized in Translation Studies (TS) as well as the localization sector (see the 2nd part of this chapter), while the software community which grows this type of device prefers to call it up ‘machine-aided translation’ (MAT). Since the more familiar term amongst professional translators and in the field of Translation Studies, ‘computer-aided translation’ is used through the entire book to represent both computer-aided translation and machine-aided translating tools, and the term ‘aided’ can be chosen instead of ‘assisted’, as also in ‘human-aided machine translation’ and ‘machine-aided human being translation’.

Determine 1 . 1 distinguishes 4 types of translation relating human and machine engagement in a category along a linear entier introduced by Hutchins and Somers (1992: 148). This kind of classification, today more than a decade older, will become harder to sustain as more tools turn into multifunctional, even as shall observe in Chapters 3, some and six.

Nevertheless, the style in Physique 1 . one particular remains valuable as a level of research for classifying translation in relation to technology. six Definition of Terms 7 MT CAT Equipment Fully automatic high quality (machine) translation (FAHQT/ FAHQMT) Human-aided machine translation (HAMT) Machine-aided human translation (MAHT) Human being Human translation (HT) MT = machine translation; KITTY = computer-aided translation Physique 1 . one particular Source: Category of translation types Hutchins and Somers (1992): 148. The initial aim of equipment translation was to build a completely automatic high-quality machine translation that would not require virtually any human involvement.

At a 1952 conference, however , Bar-Hillel reported that building a fully automatic translation system was unrealistic and years after still remained convinced that a fully computerized high-quality equipment translation program was essentially unattainable (Bar-Hillel 1960/2003: 45). Instead, what has emerged in its place is machine translation, placed between FAHQT and HAMT within the continuum of Figure 1 ) 1 . The main aim of machine translation is still to generate translation automatically, but it is no longer necessary that the output quality is substantial, rather that it can be fit-for-purpose (see Chapters 2 and 3). As for human-aided machine translation and machine-aided human translation, the boundary between the two of these areas is particularly unclear.

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